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  • 21 Mathematical Composition x
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Commonly Used Symbols

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.298
Item type: 
section
Some commonly used symbols are as follows:The following symbols are usually reserved for specific valuesFor a list of additional symbols that are used in statistics, see , Study Design and Statistics, ... More
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Copy Marking

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.292
Item type: 
section
It is essential to mark carefully each character, letter, and symbol that may be mistaken for another form (eg, x, X, χ2, ×2, 2x, x2).The following examples show correct markup for complex relations between ... More
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Displayed vs Run-In

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.293
Item type: 
section
Simple formulas may remain within the text of the manuscript if they can be set on the line: The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was calculated as follows: PVRI = (MPAP − PCWP)/CI, where MPAP ... More
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Expressing Multiplication and Division

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.297
Item type: 
section
The product of 2 or more terms, including units of measure, is conventionally indicated by a raised multiplication dot (·) (eg, 7 kg · m2) or by 2 or more characters closed up (eg, y = mx + b). However, ... More
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Fractional Exponents vs Radicals

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.609
Item type: 
section
Use of radicals may sometimes be avoided by substituting a fractional exponent: (a2−b2)1/2instead of a2−b2.As with unstacking fractions, if clarity is sacrificed by making the equation fit within the ... More
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Logarithmic Expressions

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.611
Item type: 
section
The term log is an abbreviation of logarithm. A system of logarithms may be based on any number, although logarithmic systems based on the numbers 10, 2, and the irrational number e are most common. The ... More
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Long Formulas

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.296
Item type: 
section
Long formulas may be given in 2 or more lines by breaking them at operation signs outside brackets or parentheses and keeping the indention the same whenever possible (some formulas may be too long to ... More
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Mathematical Composition

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
eISBN: 
9780195382846
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.003.0021
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195176339
Mathematical formulas and other expressions involving special symbols, character positions, and relationships may present difficulties in clarity in print and online publications. Careful markup ... More
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Negative Exponents

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.610
Item type: 
section
A negative exponent denotes the reciprocal of the expression, as illustrated in these examples: x−n= 1/xn A−1 = 1/A B−2 = 1/B2A negative exponent may simplify some expressions within running text:A(x+y)2 may also be written  as  A(x+y)-2 or A/(x+y)2 ... More
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Punctuation

Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.300
Item type: 
section
Punctuation after a set-off equation is helpful and often clarifies the meaning. Display equations are often preceded by punctuation. In the linear quadratic equation model, the survival probability for ... More

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