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Study Design and Statistics  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
eISBN: 
9780195382846
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195176339
Statistical concepts, such as the margin of error in a public opinion poll or the probability of rain or snow, appear in everyday conversation. But, just as one may understand how the heart ... More

Meta-analysis  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.280
Item type: 
section
Meta-analysis is a systematic pooling of the results of 2 or more studies to address a question of interest or hypothesis. According to Moher and Olkin, [Meta-analyses] provide a systematic and ... More

Observational Studies  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.279
Item type: 
section
In an observational study, the researcher identifies a condition or outcome of interest and then measures factors that may be related to that outcome. Although observational studies cannot lead to ... More

Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Cost-Benefit Analysis  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.281
Item type: 
section
Although a treatment or screening technique may be shown to be effective in an RCT, recommending it in general practice would not necessarily be rational. Such interventions may be prohibitively ... More

Significant Digits and Rounding Numbers  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.284
Item type: 
section
When numbers are expressed in scientific and biomedical articles, they should reflect the degree of accuracy of the original measurement. Numbers obtained from mathematical calculations should be ... More
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Methods  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.595
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the “Methods” section). This change ... More
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Results  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.596
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the “Methods” section). This change ... More

Crossover Trials  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.600
Item type: 
section
In a crossover trial, participants receive more than 1 of the treatments under investigation, usually in a randomly determined sequence, and with a prespecified amount of time (a ) between sequential ... More

Parallel-Design Double-blind Trials  

AMA Manual of Style Committee

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.599
Item type: 
section
In this study design, participants are assigned to only 1 treatment group of the study. These trials are generally designed to assess whether 1 or more treatments are superior to the others. ... More

Equivalence and Noninferiority Trials  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.601
Item type: 
section
It is sometimes desirable to compare a less expensive treatment or intervention against a treatment or intervention that is already known to be effective. In these cases, it would be unethical to ... More

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