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Study Design and Statistics

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
eISBN: 
9780195382846
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780195176339
Statistical concepts, such as the margin of error in a public opinion poll or the probability of rain or snow, appear in everyday conversation. But, just as one may understand how the heart ... More
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The Manuscript: Presenting Study Design, Rationale, and Statistical Analysis

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.277
Item type: 
section
Each portion of the manuscript should contribute to the reader’s understanding of why and how the study was done and should help persuade the reader that (1) the hypothesis or study question is clearly ... More

Randomized Controlled Trials

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.278
Item type: 
section
The randomized controlled trial (RCT) generally leads to the strongest inferences about the effect of medical treatments. Randomized controlled trials assess efficacy of the treatment intervention in ... More

Meta-analysis

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.280
Item type: 
section
Meta-analysis is a systematic pooling of the results of 2 or more studies to address a question of interest or hypothesis. According to Moher and Olkin, [Meta-analyses] provide a systematic and explicit ... More

Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Cost-Benefit Analysis

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.281
Item type: 
section
Although a treatment or screening technique may be shown to be effective in an RCT, recommending it in general practice would not necessarily be rational. Such interventions may be prohibitively expensive, ... More

Observational Studies

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.279
Item type: 
section
In an observational study, the researcher identifies a condition or outcome of interest and then measures factors that may be related to that outcome. Although observational studies cannot lead to strong ... More

Studies of Diagnostic Tests

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.282
Item type: 
section
Correct treatment depends on accurate diagnosis. Diagnostic tests may include simple procedures such as physical signs or physical examination, as well as blood tests and radiologic imaging. Few diagnostic ... More

Survey Studies

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.283
Item type: 
section
In a survey study, a representative sample of individuals are asked to describe their opinions, attitudes, or behaviors. For surveys of behavior (eg, diet, exercise, smoking), authors should provide evidence ... More

Significant Digits and Rounding Numbers

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.284
Item type: 
section
When numbers are expressed in scientific and biomedical articles, they should reflect the degree of accuracy of the original measurement. Numbers obtained from mathematical calculations should be rounded ... More

Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.286
Item type: 
section
The following may be used without expansion except where noted by an asterisk. For a term expanded at first mention, the abbreviation may be placed in parentheses after the expanded term and the abbreviation ... More

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