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## Mathematical Composition

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Mathematical formulas and other expressions involving special symbols, character positions, and relationships may present difficulties in clarity in print and online publications. Careful ...
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## Spacing With Mathematical Symbols

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Thin spaces should be used before and after the following mathematical symbols: ±, =, <, >, ≤, ≥, +, −, ÷, ×, ·, ≈, ∼, ∩, ∫, Π, Σ, and |.a ± b a = b a + b a − b a ÷ b a × b a · b a > b a < b Symbols ...
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## Copy Marking

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

It is essential to mark carefully each character, letter, and symbol that may be mistaken for another form (eg, x, X, χ2, ×2, 2x, x2). The following examples show correct markup for complex relations ...
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## Displayed vs Run-In

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Simple formulas may remain within the text of the manuscript if they can be set on the line: The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was calculated as follows: PVRI = (MPAP − PCWP)/CI, where ...
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## Stacked vs Unstacked

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Stacking of fractions (ie, separating numerator and denominator by a horizontal line) should be avoided in favor of “unstacking” (ie, using a slash in place of the horizontal line) unless this ...
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## Long Formulas

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Long formulas may be given in 2 or more lines by breaking them at operation signs outside brackets or parentheses and keeping the indention the same whenever possible (some formulas may be too long ...
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## Expressing Multiplication and Division

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

The product of 2 or more terms, including units of measure, is conventionally indicated by a raised multiplication dot (·) (eg, 7 kg · m2) or by 2 or more characters closed up (eg, y = mx + b). ...
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## Commonly Used Symbols

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Some commonly used symbols are as follows: The following symbols are usually reserved for specific values For a list of additional symbols that are used in statistics, see , Study Design and ...
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## Typography and Capitalization

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

In general, variables, unknown quantities, and constants (eg, x, y, z, A, B, C) are set in italics, while units of measure (eg, kg, mL, s, m), symbols (including Greek characters [see , Greek ...
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## Punctuation

*Stephen J. Lurie*

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Punctuation after a set-off equation is helpful and often clarifies the meaning. Display equations are often preceded by punctuation. In the linear quadratic equation model, the survival probability ...
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