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  • 5.9 Defamation, Libel. x
  • 5 Ethical and Legal Considerations x
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Defamation, Libel

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.77
Item type: 
section
Truth is generally the best vindication againstslander.   Abraham LincolnDefamation is the act of harming another’s reputation by libel or slander and thereby exposing that person to public hatred, contempt, ... More

Living Persons and Existing Entities

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.217
Item type: 
section
A statement generally cannot be libelous unless it is “of and concerning” a living person or existing entity (eg, corporation, institution, or organization).,, According to a 1992 case, Gugliuzza v KCMC, ... More

Public and Private Figures

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.218
Item type: 
section
A public figure is a person who assumes a role of prominence in society, such as an elected official, a celebrity, or an infamous criminal. In cases of alleged libel, public figures are afforded less ... More

Groups of Individuals

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.219
Item type: 
section
Defamatory statements about groups of individuals are usually not legally actionable if the group is so large that no individual can be identified in the statements., For example, broad statements about ... More

Statements of Opinion

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.220
Item type: 
section
Statements that contain pure opinion (ie, purely subjective judgment without assertion of fact) are not legally actionable because opinions cannot be proven true or false.(§5.08),, However, an opinion ... More

Works of Fiction

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.221
Item type: 
section
Fictional accounts are not actionable for defamation unless a reasonable reader believes that the story is depicting factual events and can identify the person bringing suit in the story. Humor, satire, ... More

Republication and News Reporting

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.222
Item type: 
section
A publisher can be held liable for republishing a defamatory statement. For example, if a publisher reprinted a defamatory statement about a public figure knowing that the statement was false, the publisher ... More

Defense Against Libel

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.223
Item type: 
section
In the United States, truth is a defense against claims of libel in most cases (see also , Defamation, Libel). Aside from consideration of truth of damaging statements, some jurisdictions also consider ... More

Minimizing the Risk of Libel

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.224
Item type: 
section
The suggestions in this section are offered to help authors, editors, and publishers reduce the risk of libel in biomedical publication. All statements of fact about individuals or commercial entities ... More

Demands to Correct, Retract, or Remove Libelous Information

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.225
Item type: 
section
Demands to correct or retract allegedly libelous material should be handled carefully. Removal of libelous information in print is not possible, and the standard course of action has been to print corrections ... More

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