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Abstract and Introduction  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.594
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the “Methods” section). This change ... More

Case Series  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.605
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section
A case series describes characteristics of a group of patients with a particular disease or patients who have undergone a particular procedure. A case series may also involve observation of larger ... More

Case-Control Studies  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.604
Item type: 
section
Case-control studies, which are always retrospective, compare those who have had an outcome or event () with those who have not (). Cases and controls are then evaluated for exposure to various and ... More

Cohort Studies  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.603
Item type: 
section
A prospective cohort study follows a group or of individuals who are initially free of the outcome of interest. Individuals in a cohort generally share some underlying characteristic, such as age, ... More

Cost-effectiveness Analysis, Cost-Benefit Analysis  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.281
Item type: 
section
Although a treatment or screening technique may be shown to be effective in an RCT, recommending it in general practice would not necessarily be rational. Such interventions may be prohibitively ... More

Crossover Trials  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.600
Item type: 
section
In a crossover trial, participants receive more than 1 of the treatments under investigation, usually in a randomly determined sequence, and with a prespecified amount of time (a ) between sequential ... More
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Discussion (Comment)  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.597
Item type: 
section
Whether the hypothesis was supported or refuted by the results should be addressed. The study result should be placed in context of published literature. The limitations of the study should be ... More

Equivalence and Noninferiority Trials  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.601
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section
It is sometimes desirable to compare a less expensive treatment or intervention against a treatment or intervention that is already known to be effective. In these cases, it would be unethical to ... More
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Glossary of Statistical Terms  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.285
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section
UPDATE: The terms multivariable and multivariate are not synonymous, as the entries in the Glossary of Statistical Terms suggest (Chapter 20.9, page 881 in the print). To be accurate, multivariable ... More
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The Manuscript: Presenting Study Design, Rationale, and Statistical Analysis  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.277
Item type: 
section
Each portion of the manuscript should contribute to the reader’s understanding of why and how the study was done and should help persuade the reader that (1) the hypothesis or study question is ... More

Meta-analysis  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.280
Item type: 
section
Meta-analysis is a systematic pooling of the results of 2 or more studies to address a question of interest or hypothesis. According to Moher and Olkin, [Meta-analyses] provide a systematic and ... More
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Methods  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.595
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the “Methods” section). This change ... More

Observational Studies  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.279
Item type: 
section
In an observational study, the researcher identifies a condition or outcome of interest and then measures factors that may be related to that outcome. Although observational studies cannot lead to ... More

Parallel-Design Double-blind Trials  

AMA Manual of Style Committee

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.599
Item type: 
section
In this study design, participants are assigned to only 1 treatment group of the study. These trials are generally designed to assess whether 1 or more treatments are superior to the others. ... More

Randomized Controlled Trials  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.278
Item type: 
section
The randomized controlled trial (RCT) generally leads to the strongest inferences about the effect of medical treatments. Randomized controlled trials assess efficacy of the treatment intervention in ... More
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Results  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.596
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the “Methods” section). This change ... More
This content has an associated quiz

Rounding  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.608
Item type: 
section
The digits to the right of the last significant digit are rounded up or down. If the digit to the right of the last significant digit is less than 5, the last significant digit is not changed. If the ... More

Significant Digits  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.607
Item type: 
section
The use of a numeral in a numbers column (eg, the ones column) implies that the method of measurement is accurate to that level of precision. For example, when a reporter attempts to estimate the ... More

Significant Digits and Rounding Numbers  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.284
Item type: 
section
When numbers are expressed in scientific and biomedical articles, they should reflect the degree of accuracy of the original measurement. Numbers obtained from mathematical calculations should be ... More

Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations  

Margaret A. Winker and Stephen J. Lurie

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year: 
2007
Published Online: 
2009
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.286
Item type: 
section
The following may be used without expansion except where noted by an asterisk. For a term expanded at first mention, the abbreviation may be placed in parentheses after the expanded term and the ... More

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