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• 21 Mathematical Composition
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## Commonly Used Symbols

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.298
Item type:
section
Some commonly used symbols are as follows: The following symbols are usually reserved for specific values For a list of additional symbols that are used in statistics, see , Study Design and ... More
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## Copy Marking

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.292
Item type:
section
It is essential to mark carefully each character, letter, and symbol that may be mistaken for another form (eg, x, X, χ2, ×2, 2x, x2). The following examples show correct markup for complex relations ... More
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## Displayed vs Run-In

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.293
Item type:
section
Simple formulas may remain within the text of the manuscript if they can be set on the line: The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was calculated as follows: PVRI = (MPAP − PCWP)/CI, where ... More
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## Expressing Multiplication and Division

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.297
Item type:
section
The product of 2 or more terms, including units of measure, is conventionally indicated by a raised multiplication dot (·) (eg, 7 kg · m2) or by 2 or more characters closed up (eg, y = mx + b). ... More
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### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.609
Item type:
section
Use of radicals may sometimes be avoided by substituting a fractional exponent: (a2−b2)1/2instead of a2−b2. As with unstacking fractions, if clarity is sacrificed by making the equation fit within ... More
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## Logarithmic Expressions

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.611
Item type:
section
The term log is an abbreviation of logarithm. A system of logarithms may be based on any number, although logarithmic systems based on the numbers 10, 2, and the irrational number e are most common. ... More
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## Long Formulas

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.296
Item type:
section
Long formulas may be given in 2 or more lines by breaking them at operation signs outside brackets or parentheses and keeping the indention the same whenever possible (some formulas may be too long ... More
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## Mathematical Composition

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
eISBN:
9780195382846
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.003.0021
Item type:
chapter
ISBN:
9780195176339
Mathematical formulas and other expressions involving special symbols, character positions, and relationships may present difficulties in clarity in print and online publications. Careful ... More
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## Negative Exponents

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.022.610
Item type:
section
A negative exponent denotes the reciprocal of the expression, as illustrated in these examples: x−n= 1/xn A−1 = 1/A B−2 = 1/B2 A negative exponent may simplify some expressions within running text: ... More
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## Punctuation

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.300
Item type:
section
Punctuation after a set-off equation is helpful and often clarifies the meaning. Display equations are often preceded by punctuation. In the linear quadratic equation model, the survival probability ... More
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## Spacing With Mathematical Symbols

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.301
Item type:
section
Thin spaces should be used before and after the following mathematical symbols: ±, =, <, >, ≤, ≥, +, −, ÷, ×, ·, ≈, ∼, ∩, ∫, Π, Σ, and |.a ± b a = b a + b a − b a ÷ b a × b a · b a > b a < b Symbols ... More
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## Stacked vs Unstacked

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.294
Item type:
section
Stacking of fractions (ie, separating numerator and denominator by a horizontal line) should be avoided in favor of “unstacking” (ie, using a slash in place of the horizontal line) unless this ... More
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## Typography and Capitalization

### in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition)

Print Publication Year:
2007
Published Online:
2009
DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.021.299
Item type:
section
In general, variables, unknown quantities, and constants (eg, x, y, z, A, B, C) are set in italics, while units of measure (eg, kg, mL, s, m), symbols (including Greek characters [see , Greek ... More

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