Glossary of Publishing Terms - AMA Manual of Style

Subscriber Login

  • This account has no valid subscription for this site.

Forgotten your password?

Contents
Page of

Glossary of Publishing Terms 

Glossary of Publishing Terms

Chapter:
Glossary of Publishing Terms
Author(s):

Jennifer Reiling

DOI:
10.1093/jama/9780195176339.003.0024
Page of

PRINTED FROM AMA MANUAL OF STYLE ONLINE (www.amamanualofstyle.com). © American Medical Association, 2009. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the license agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in AMA Manual of Style Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy). 

Subscriber: null; date: 30 April 2016

This glossary is intended to define terms commonly encountered during editing and publishing as well as those editing and publishing as well as those industry terms that also have a more common vernacular meaning. The glossary is not all-inclusive. New terms and new usage of existing terms will emerge with time and advances in technology. Definitions for the terms herein were compiled from the ninth edition of this manual and the sources listed at the end of the chapter. Terms used in definitions that are defined elsewhere in this glossary are italic links.

  • AA: Author’s alteration; a change or correction made by an author; used in correcting proofs (compare EA and PE).

  • access: The ability to locate specific information in a body of stored data. Data stored on magnetic tape are accessed sequentially; data stored on disc may be randomly accessed.

  • acid-free paper: Paper made by alkaline sizing, a treatment that improves the paper’s resistance to liquid and vapor and improves the paper’s permanence.

  • advertorial: Promotional or advertising content that has the appearance of editorial content (see 5.12.3, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Advertisements, Advertorials, Supplements, Reprints, and E-prints).

  • against the grain: See grain direction.

  • AI: Native file format of Illustrator (Adobe).

  • align: To place text and/or graphics to line up horizontally or vertically with related elements.

  • alphanumeric: Letters, numbers, and symbols used as a code, eg, for a computer command.

  • ANSI: Acronym for American National Standards Institute, Inc.

  • API: Abbreviation for application program (or programming) interface, a set of routines, protocols, and tools for building software applications. A good API makes it easier to develop a program by providing all the building blocks. A programmer puts the blocks together.

  • application: A computer program that enables the user to perform a specific task, eg, word processor, Web browsers, graphic tools.

  • archive: To copy files from a long-term storage unit for backup purposes.

  • art repair, art rebuilding: Replacing text, symbols, arrows, and lines on line art to produce illustrations that are consistent in format, type, and size.

  • artwork: Illustrative material, such as photographs, drawings, and graphs, intended for reproduction (see 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data).

  • ascender: The part of lowercase letters, such as d, f, h, and k, that extends above the midportion or x-height of the letter (compare descender).

  • ASCII: Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (pronounced [ask-ee]); a code representing an alphanumeric group of characters that is recognized by most computers and computer programs.

  • ASCII file: A computer file containing only ASCII-coded text.

  • ASTM: Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials.

  • author’s editor: An editor who substantially edits an author’s manuscript and prepares it to meet the requirements for publication in a particular journal.

  • backstrip: A strip of paper affixed to the bound edges of paper that form a journal’s spine.

  • back up (v), backup (n): Saving copies of digital files on disk, tape, or other medium; a duplicate file or disk.

  • bad break: A poor or potentially confusing arrangement of type at the end of a line or the bottom or top of a page or column. Examples include a paragraph ending with 1 or 2 words at the top of a page or column (see widow) or the first line of a paragraph starting at the bottom of a page or column (see orphan), a heading falling on the last line of a page or column, an improperly hyphenated word or acronym, or the second part of a properly hyphenated word starting a page.

  • bandwidth: The capacity of a communication system in transferring data.

  • banner: The rectangular graphic at the top of a Web page. Also, in advertising, a banner ad is typically a rectangular advertisement placed on a website either above or below (or on the sides of) the site’s main content and may be linked to the advertiser’s own website. Vertical ads are also called towers or skyscrapers.

  • baseline: The imaginary line on which the letters in a line of type appear to rest.

  • basis weight: The weight of paper determined by the weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a standard size for a specific grade. For example, 500 sheets, 25×38 in, of 80-lb coated paper will weigh 80 lb.

  • baud rate: In telecommunications and electronics, the signaling rate; a baud is the number of changes to the transmission media per second in a modulated signal.

  • BBS: Abbreviation for bulletin board system.

  • binary system: A system of numbers using only the digits 1 and 0 for all values; it is the basis for digital computers.

  • binding: (1) The process by which printed units or pages are attached to form a book, journal, or pamphlet, including operations such as folding, collating, stitching, or gluing (see also loose-leaf binding, perfect binding, saddle-stitch binding, and selective binding). (2) The cover and spine of a book or journal.

  • BinHex: Coding format that converts binary data into ASCII characters.

  • bit: A binary digit, either 0 or 1; the smallest unit of digital information.

  • bitmap (bmp): Also called raster graphic image or digital image, a data file or structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, on a computer monitor, paper, or other display device (see also tag, tagged, and TIFF); also, the file format built into Windows and native to Microsoft Paint; supports 1- to 24-bit depth and index color.

  • bitmap fonts: Low-resolution fonts designed for computer screens, whose characters are represented by bitmaps or by a pattern of dots.

  • black: One of the 4 process printing colors (see CMYK).

  • blanket: A fabric coated with rubber or other material that is clamped around a printing cylinder to transfer ink from the press plate to the paper (see also offset printing).

  • bleed: A printed image that runs off the edge of a printed page. A partial bleed extends above, below, or to the side of the established print area but does not continue off the page (see also live area).

  • blind folio: A page number counted but not printed on the page (see folio).

  • blind image: An image that fails to print because of ink receptivity error.

  • blog: Abbreviation for weblog. A weblog is a journal-style website that is frequently updated and intended for general public consumption. Blogs generally represent the personality of the author.

  • blueline(s): The proof sheet(s) of a book or magazine printed in blue ink that shows exactly how the pages will look when they are printed.

  • blueprint, blackprint: A photoprint made from film that is used to check position and relative arrangement of text and image elements.

  • body type: The type characteristics used for the main body text of a work.

  • boilerplate: A section of text that can be reused without changes.

  • boldface (bf): A typeface that is heavier and darker than the text face used (see 22.0, Typography).

  • bot: A computer program that automates tasks. See also spider[ing].

  • bouncing reject: A rejected manuscript that is returned to the editorial office with request for reconsideration (see 5.11.5, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Editorial Responsibilities, Roles, Procedures, and Policies, Editorial Responsibility for Rejection).

  • bps: Abbreviation for bits per second. A measurement of the speed with which data travel from one place to another (compare baud rate).

  • broadside: Printed text or illustrations positioned on the length rather than the width of the page, requiring the reader to turn the publication on its side to read it; usually used for tables and figures that are wider than the normal width of a publication.

  • browser: See Web browser.

  • bug: Something that causes an error in computer software or hardware (see also virus).

  • bullet: An aligned dot of a heavy weight (•) used to highlight individual elements in a list (see centered dot).

  • byline: A line of text at the beginning of an article listing the authors’ names (compare signature [2]) (see 2.2, Manuscript Preparation, Bylines and End-of-Text Signatures, and 5.1.1, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Authorship Responsibility, Authorship: Definition, Criteria, Contributions, and Requirements).

  • byte: A unit of digital information that can code for a single alphanumeric symbol; 1 byte equals 8 to 64 bits.

  • CAD: Abbreviation for computer-aided design or computer-assisted design.

  • calibrate: To adjust a device such as a scanner or a monitor, image setter, or printing press to more precisely reproduce color.

  • caliper: Thickness of paper or film measured in terms of thousandths of an inch (mils or points); also the tool used to measure the thickness of paper.

  • call-outs: Quotes of reprinted text, usually bolder and larger than that of the original text, used to place emphasis, improve design, or fill white space. Also called pullout quotes.

  • camera-ready: Copy, including artwork and text, that is ready to be photographed for reproduction without further composition or alteration.

  • CAP: (1) Abbreviation for computer-aided publishing or computer-assisted publishing. (2) As a proofreading or editing mark, short for capital letter.

  • caption: The text accompanying an illustration or photograph. See also legend and 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data.

  • CAR: Abbreviation for computer-assisted reading.

  • case: The cover of a hardbound book (see also lowercase and uppercase).

  • CD: Abbreviation for compact (or computer) disc containing data or used for storing data.

  • CDI: Abbreviation for interactive compact disc containing data.

  • CD-ROM: Acronym for compact (or computer) disc, read-only memory; a compact disc containing data that can be read by a computer. Many CD-ROMs are interactive and have sound, graphics, and video.

  • cell: In tables or spreadsheets, a unit in an array formed by the intersection of a column and a row; in computer terminology, a basic subdivision of a memory that can hold 1 unit of a computer’s basic operating data (see also 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data).

  • centered dot: A heavy dot (•) used to highlight individual elements in a list (see bullet). Also, a lighter centered dot (·) is used in mathematical composition to signify multiplication and in chemical formulas to indicate hydration.

  • central processing unit (CPU): The component in a digital computer that interprets instructions and processes data contained in software.

  • CEPS: Acronym for color electronic prepress systems; electronic color equipment used to perform electronic retouching, cloning, and pagination.

  • character: A letter, numeral, symbol, or punctuation mark.

  • character count: The process of estimating the amount of space that typed or computer-printed copy will occupy on a published page. A manual character count is made by counting the number of characters and spaces in an average line of the manuscript, multiplying that number by the number of lines on the manuscript page, and multiplying that number by the total number of manuscript pages. Most word-processing programs will provide an exact character count and word count.

  • circulation: The total number of print copies of a publication sold and distributed (see also controlled circulation).

  • citation analysis: An analysis of the number of times a published article is cited in the reference list of subsequently published articles (see also impact factor).

  • CMYK: Abbreviation for the 4 process printing colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black. See also four-color process.

  • codes: Combinations of letters, numbers, and symbols entered through a keyboard that instruct a computer how to format and compose a document or file (see also tag and tagged).

  • colophon: A summary of information about the publication or the publication’s production methods or specifications; also the publisher’s emblem or trademark (see also masthead).

  • color breaks: Separating elements of a piece of artwork that will print in more than 1 color. A second or third color proof may be attached to a black proof to show the color screen on artwork.

  • color correct: To change the color values in a set of film separations or, using a software application, to correct or compensate for errors in photography, scanning, separation, and output.

  • color proofs: Photomechanical or digital representations of color.

  • color separation: The process of separating artwork into component films of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black in preparation for printing (see also CMYK).

  • compatible: A term describing an environment in which one computer will accept and process data from another computer without conversion of code modifications; also a term describing the ability to use hardware and software together on one computer platform.

  • compilation: A section of a publication that is made up of a group of items, eg, letters or book reviews that are run together with more than 1 per page.

  • composite figure: A figure that is composed of more than 1 type of element (eg, halftone, line art, 4-color).

  • composition: The arrangement of type and typographic characteristics for printing.

  • compression: A computer technique of eliminating redundant information, such as blank lines from a document or white space from an image, to reduce the file size for faster transmission or more compact storage of data. See also lossy, nonlossy, and LZW compression.

  • computer-assisted composition: A process in which text in digital form is recorded on a magnetic medium (magnetic tape, hard disk, diskette, optical drive) and processed through a set of typesetting parameters stored in a computer that dictate the type size and font, hyphenation and justification, character and word spacing, and all typographical requirements needed to typeset the text. The data stream created from this process is used to drive an image setter for typesetting and printing a page of text.

  • condensed type: A narrow version of a typeface, designed to fit more text on each line (see 22.0, Typography).

  • content management system (CMS): Software that enables management and editing of content on a website.

  • context-sensitive editor: A software program that uses document structure to determine which elements are appropriate to insert in a particular context within a document (eg, XML and SGML editor).

  • continuous tone: An image that has gradations of tone from dark to light, in contrast to an image formed of pure blacks and whites, such as a pen-and-ink drawing or a page of type (see also halftone and duotone).

  • controlled circulation: Copies of a publication distributed to a select list of recipients without charge (see also circulation).

  • cookie: Message given to a Web browser by a Web server to identify users.

  • copy: Any matter, including a manuscript in handwritten, typescript, or digital format, artwork, photographs, tables, and figures, to be set or reproduced for printing (see also hard copy).

  • copy editor: An editor who prepares a document or other copy for publication, making alterations and corrections to ensure accuracy, consistency, and uniformity. Also called manuscript editor.

  • copy fitting: Estimating the space required to print a given amount of copy in a specific type size, typeface, and format. The number of characters in the manuscript is estimated and divided by the number of characters per pica for the typeface and type size to be used in the published version; this number is divided by the number of picas of the typeset line, and then by the number of lines of type per page. The result is an estimate of the number of published pages the manuscript will occupy (see also character count).

  • copyright: The law protecting an author’s or publisher’s rights to published and unpublished works (see 5.6.3, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management, Copyright: Definition, History, and Current Law).

  • corrupted: Refers to data that have been damaged in some way.

  • cover: The front and back pages of a publication. The 4 pages making up the covers in a publication are often designated covers 1, 2, 3, and 4. Covers 1 and 4 are outside pages, and covers 2 and 3 are inside pages.

  • cover stock: Paper used for the cover, usually heavier than the paper used for the body of the publication.

  • CPI: Abbreviation for characters per inch.

  • CPU: Abbreviation for central processing unit.

  • crawl, Web crawler: See spider[ing].

  • crop: To trim a photograph or illustration to fit a design or to cut off unwanted portions.

  • crop marks: Lines placed on the sides, top, and bottom of a photograph or illustration indicating the size or area of the image to be reproduced.

  • CTP: Abbreviation for computer-to-plate; a printing process that transmits a digital image directly from a computer file to a plate used on a press, eliminating the need for film or negatives.

  • cursor: An on-screen indicator, such as a blinking line, arrow, hollow square, or other image (usually mouse or keystroke driven), that marks a designated place on the screen and indicates current point of data entry or modification, menu selection, or program function.

  • cyan: One of the 4 process printing colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black); a shade of blue (see CMYK).

  • data: Factual information (eg, measurements) used in calculation, analysis, and discussion; information in digital form that can be organized, manipulated, stored, and transmitted.

  • data bank: A compilation of information stored in a computer for retrieval and use.

  • database: A collection of stored data from which information can be extracted and organized in various forms and formats, usually for rapid search and retrieval.

  • debug: To trace and correct errors in a computer program.

  • demand printing: A part of the publishing industry that creates short-run, customized print publications quickly and on individual request.

  • demographic versions: Different versions of an issue of a publication containing specific inserts targeted for specific readers; the inserts are usually advertisements.

  • descender: The part of such letters as p, q, and y that extends below the main body of the letter or baseline (compare ascender and see x-height).

  • desktop color separation: A computer file format that separates an EPs (encapsulated PostScript) color file into the 4 color elements: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

  • desktop publishing (DTP): A microcomputer-based publishing system consisting of a computer, pagination software, scanner, and output device.

  • digital asset management (DAM): A centralized system for archiving, searching, and retrieving digital files and associated metadata. Also known as enterprise digital asset management, media asset management, or digital asset warehousing.

  • digitize: To transform a printed character or image into bits or binary digits, so that it can be entered into and manipulated in a computer.

  • disc, disk: A circular plate coated with a magnetic substance and used for the storage and retrieval of data (see 11.0, Correct and Preferred Usage).

  • diskette: Another term for a disc used for storage of information, usually in personal computers.

  • display type: Type that differs from the body type of the text of a printed work. Display faces are used in titles, headings, and subheadings and are usually larger than the body type.

  • doc: Microsoft Word file format and extension (.doc).

  • document: Organized coherent information in written, printed, or digital format.

  • document delivery: A service that allows users to search online databases of indexes and tables of contents to identify articles and request copies of those articles to be delivered by mail, by fax, or online.

  • DOI: Abbreviation for digital object identifier, a means of identifying a WWW file or Internet document. A DOI provides a means of persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related current data in a structured extensible way.

  • domain: An Internet location, and the last part of an email address indicating the type of business, eg, .com, .net, .edu, .org, .mil, .gov, or letters that indicate a country, eg, .ca, .uk, .fr.

  • domain name: The name that identifies an Internet site. Domain names have 2 or more parts (following www.), separated by dots. The part on the left is more specific, and the part on the right is more general, eg, Oxford University Press’ domain name is www.oup.co.uk.

  • DOS: Abbreviation for disk operating system (pronounced [doss]); operating system used by most PC-compatible computers and workstations.

  • dot: In a halftone, an individual printing element or spot (see also dot gain and dots per inch).

  • dot gain: A printing defect that causes dots to print larger than they should, resulting in darker tone and color than intended.

  • dot matrix printer: A printer that produces hard copy from a series of wires (pins) that strike against an ink source. The dots created form characters. Quality varies; manuscripts printed on dot matrix printers may not be easily read by some optical scanners for typesetting because the spaces between the dots create an uneven structure (see also ink-jet printer, laser printer, and line printer).

  • dots per inch (DPI): A measure of the resolution of a printed image (also called spots per inch).

  • double spread: Printed material (text, tables, illustrations) that extends across 2 pages (left- and right-hand pages); also called a spread or a 2-page spread.

  • download: The process of transferring digital files from a remote computer to a local computer.

  • DPI: Abbreviation for dots per inch.

  • drive: The computer hardware, consisting of the motor, read/write heads, and electronics, that is used with a disc.

  • DRM: Abbreviation for digital rights management, a system used to protect the copyrights of data distributed or accessed via the Internet or other digital media. A DRM system protects intellectual property by encrypting the data or marking the content with a digital watermark so that the content cannot be distributed.

  • drop cap, dropped cap: The initial letter of a word (usually beginning a paragraph) set in boldface, larger than the body text (see also initial).

  • drop folio: A page number printed at the bottom of the page (see folio).

  • DSL: Digital subscriber line that provides an extremely high-speed Internet connection with the same wires as a regular telephone line.

  • DSSSL: Abbreviation for document style semantics and specification language; an output specification standard used with SGML-coded documents and a DTD to drive a typesetter or printer.

  • DTD: Abbreviation for document type definition, which defines the structure of content (ie, journals or books) with a list of elements (ie, title, author, abstract, paragraphs). The DTD is the blueprint for SGML and XML documents.

  • dummy: A layout of a page or an entire journal, to represent the size and appearance after printing.

  • duotone: A 2-color halftone reproduction from a black-and-white photograph; usually reproduced in black and 1 other color.

  • DVD: Abbreviation for digital versatile disc or digital video disc. An optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. DVDs resemble compact discs, as their physical dimensions are the same, but they are encoded in a different format and at a much higher density.

  • EA: Abbreviation for editor’s alteration or correction (compare AA and PE).

  • e-commerce: Electronic commerce; business that is conducted over the Internet using any of the applications that rely on the Internet. e-Commerce can be a transaction between 2 businesses, or between a business and a customer.

  • editor: (1) Someone who directs a publication or heads an editorial staff and/or decides on the acceptability of a document for publication (eg, editor, editor in chief); manages a publication (eg, managing editor); prepares a document for publication by altering, adapting, and refining it (eg, manuscript editor, copy editor, author’s editor). (2) In computer terminology, a program used to create text files or make changes to an existing file. Text or full-screen editors allow users to move through a document with direction keys, keystrokes, and a mouse- or command-driven cursor. Line editors allow the user to view the document as a series of numbered lines (see also context-sensitive editor and SGML editor).

  • editorial: (1) Of or relating to an editor or editing. (2) A written expression of opinion that may or may not reflect the official position of the publication. (3) Published material that is not promotional (eg, not an advertisement).

  • editorial assistant: One who assists in the editorial procedures and processes of editing and publishing.

  • e-journal: Electronic journal; a journal published in digital format (eg, on the World Wide Web or CD-ROM) that is accessed via a computer.

  • elite type: Typewriter type that equals 12 characters to the inch (see also pica type).

  • ellipsis: A series of 3 periods (… ) used to indicate an omission or that data are not available.

  • em: A measurement used to specify to the typesetter the amount of space desired for indention, usually equal to the square body of the type size (eg, a 6-point em is 6 points wide).

  • email: Electronic mail; an online system that allows people to send messages to each other through their computers.

  • em dash: A punctuation mark (—) used to indicate an interruption or break in thought in a sentence; also used after introductory clauses and before closing clauses or designations (compare en dash and see 8.3, Punctuation, Hyphens and Dashes).

  • EMF: Abbreviation for Enhanced MetaFile, the 32-bit file format created by Microsoft Windows.

  • emulsification: A condition in offset printing that results from a mixing of the water-based fountain solution and oil-based ink on the press (see also fountain).

  • emulsion side: The side of a photographic film to which a chemical coating is applied and on which the image is developed.

  • en: Half an em (see also em).

  • enamel: The surface of shiny, coated paper.

  • en dash: A punctuation mark (–) (longer than a hyphen and half the length of an em dash) used in hyphenated or compound modifiers (compare em dash and see 8.3, Punctuation, Hyphens and Dashes).

  • end mark: A symbol, such as a dash (—) or an open square (☐), to indicate the end of an article; often used in news stories.

  • EPS (encapsulated PostScript): A graphics file format. An EPS file is a PostScript file that satisfies additional restrictions for high-resolution graphics. These restrictions are intended to make it easier for software to embed an EPS file within another PostScript document.

  • e-publication: Electronic publication; a work published in digital format (eg, online, CD-ROM) that is accessed via a computer.

  • ethernet: A method of networking computers in a local area network (LAN).

  • expanded type: Type in which the characters are wider than normal (see 22.0, Typography).

  • export: To convert and transfer data from one application into another application (compare import).

  • extensible markup language: See XML.

  • face: Typeface; style of type (see also font).

  • F&G: Abbreviation for folded and gathered signatures of a publication for final review before publication.

  • FAQs: Acronym for frequently asked questions; often used by website and home page designers to help users access and search for information and resolve common problems.

  • fax: Short for facsimile; transmission of printed or digitized material through telephone lines.

  • figure: An illustration, eg, photograph, drawing, graph (see 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data).

  • file: A collection of related, digitally stored information that is recognized as a unit by a computer.

  • filler: (1) Editorial content used to fill white space created by articles or advertisements not filling an entire page. (2) Chemicals used to fill the spaces between fibers in paper to improve the paper’s opacity.

  • finish: The surface of paper.

  • firewall: In computer terminology, a security software program or device that blocks or restricts entry into a local area network from the Internet.

  • floppy disk: A flexible disc coated with magnetically sensitive material used for temporary storage of information, usually used with personal computers (see also diskette).

  • flush: Lines of type aligned vertically along the left margin (flush left) or the right margin (flush right).

  • flush and hang: To set the first line flush left on the margin and indent the remaining lines.

  • flyleaf: Any blank page at the front or back of a book.

  • folio: A page number placed at the bottom or top of a printed page (see also drop folio and blind folio).

  • font: The complete assortment of qualities (eg, size, pitch, and spacing) and styles (eg, boldface, italic, etc) of a particular typeface (see 22.0, Typography).

  • foot: The bottom of a page (compare head).

  • footer: See running foot.

  • form, press form: A group of assembled pages (usually 8, 12, 16, or 32 pages), printed at the same time, then folded into consecutively numbered pages (see also signature).

  • format: The shape, size, style, margins, type, and design of a publication.

  • FOSI: Acronym for formatted output specification instance (pronounced [foss-ee]). FOSI is a style sheet language for SGML and XML (see also specifications and DTD).

  • fountain: In offset (lithographic) printing, the part of the press that contains the dampening device and solution (usually water, buffered acid, gum, and alcohol); in nonoffset printing, the part of the press that contains the ink.

  • four-color process: See CMYK.

  • FPO: Abbreviation meaning for position only; refers to low-resolution graphics used in place of high-resolution graphics to show placement of artwork and photographs before printing.

  • FPS: Abbreviation for frames per second.

  • FTP: Abbreviation for file transfer protocol. A method for exchanging files between computers on the Internet.

  • function key: A key on a computer keyboard that gives an instruction to the machine or computer, as opposed to the keys for letters, numbers, and punctuation marks; often labeled F (eg, F1, F2).

  • galley proof: A proof of typeset text copy run 1 column wide before being made into a page.

  • gatefold: A foldout page.

  • GB: Abbreviation for gigabyte; a unit of computer storage, equal to approximately 1 billion bytes.

  • Gbps: Abbreviation for billions of bits per second; when spelled GBps, it means gigabytes per second.

  • ghost author: An author who meets all criteria for authorship but is not named in the byline of a publication (see 5.1.2, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Authorship Responsibility, Guest and Ghost Authors).

  • ghosting: Shadows produced by uneven ink coverage (variations are caused by wide contrasts in the colors or tones being printed).

  • GIF (.gif): Acronym for graphics interchange format. A compressed graphic file normally used for images (eg, logos, cartoons) that do not require many colors (maximum, 256).

  • gigabyte: See GB.

  • glossy: A photograph or line art printed on smooth, shiny paper that traditionally has been required by some publishers for print reproduction.

  • gopher: An online Web browser that allows a user to locate online addresses and topics in text-only format (no graphics).

  • gradation: A transition of shades between black and white, between one color and another, or between one color and white.

  • grain direction: The direction of the fibers in a sheet of paper created when the paper is made.

  • granularity: The level of specificity with which parts of a digital document are identified by a context-sensitive editor.

  • graphical user interface (GUI): Pronounced [goo-ee]; a computer display format that allows the user to select commands, run programs, and view lists of files and other options by pointing a cursor to icons or menus (text lists) of items on the screen.

  • gray scale: A range of grays with gradations from white to black. A gray-scale image contains various shades of gray.

  • greeking: (1) A simulation of a reduced-size page used by word-processing applications during the print preview function because it is usually not possible to shrink text size in proportion to the page size. The graphic symbols used to represent text resemble Greek letters; hence the term greeking. Also called Lorem ipsum, or lipsum. (2) Refers to nonsense text or gray bars inserted in a page to check the layout.

  • gutter: The 2 inner margins of facing pages of a publication, from printed area to binding.

  • hairline: The thinnest stroke of a character.

  • hairline rule: A thin rule, usually measuring one-half point.

  • halftone: A black-and-white continuous-tone artwork, such as a photograph, that has shades of gray (see also duotone and 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data).

  • halftone screen: A grid used in the halftone process to break the image into dots. The fineness of the screen is denoted in terms of lines per inch (eg, 120, 133, 150).

  • H&J: Abbreviation for hyphenation and justification; the determination of line breaks and the division of words into lines of prescribed measurement (see justify).

  • handwork: Extra work the printer does by hand, such as stripping in type or making part of a page opaque.

  • hard copy: Printed copy, in contrast to copy stored in digital format.

  • hardware: Machinery, circuitry, and other physical entities (compare software).

  • head: The top of a page (compare foot).

  • header: See running head.

  • head margin: Top margin of a page.

  • home page: The first screen a user views when connecting to a specific site on the Web.

  • HTML: Abbreviation for hypertext markup language; codes (tags) used to prepare a file containing both text and graphics for placement on the Internet via the Web.

  • http: Abbreviation for hypertext transfer protocol; a computer connection used at the beginning of a Web address to connect with a website and transfer information and graphics across the Web.

  • https: Abbreviation for hypertext transfer protocol, secure. This protocol is used for performing financial and other types of transactions that require secure transmission of information.

  • hyperlink: (v) The nonlinear relating of information, images, and sounds that allows a computer user to jump quickly from one topic, item, or representation to another by clicking a mouse-driven cursor on a highlighted word or icon; (n) the highlighted word or icon.

  • icon: A small graphic image, usually a visual mnemonic, displayed on a computer screen, easily manipulated by the user, that represents common computer commands (eg, a trash can may represent a command for deleting unwanted text or files).

  • image setter: A device that plots an array of dots or pixels onto photosensitive material (film) line by line, until an entire page is created (including text, graphics, and color). The film can be output as a negative or positive with resolutions from 300 to 3000 dots per inch.

  • impact factor: A measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. It helps to evaluate a journal’s relative importance when compared with others in the same field. The impact factor is calculated by dividing the number of current citations to all articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of “countable” articles published in those 2 years (see also citation analysis).

  • import: Using data produced by one application in another, eg, importing data from a spreadsheet and using it to produce a report in a word-processing document (compare export).

  • imposition: The process of arranging pages or press forms of a publication so that the pages will be in sequential order when printed, folded, and bound into a publication; a guide or list showing the sequential order of pages.

  • impression: The transfer of an ink image by pressure from type, plate, or blanket to paper. The speed of a sheet-fed printing press is measured by the number of impressions printed per hour.

  • imprint: The name of the publishing house or entity that issues a book; the imprint is typically found at the bottom of the title page. It may or may not be the same as the name of the publishing company, and a publishing company may have various imprints.

  • indent: To set a line of type or paragraph in from the margin or margins (see 22.0, Typography).

  • inferior: See subscript.

  • initial: A large letter, the first letter of a word used to begin a paragraph, chapter, or section. A “sunken” or “dropped” initial cuts 2 or 3 lines down into the text; a “stickup” initial aligns at the bottom with the first line of text and sticks up into the white space above (see also dropped cap).

  • ink fountain: Device on the press that supplies the ink to the inking rollers.

  • ink-jet printer: A device by which ink is forced through a series of nozzles onto paper, commonly used with personal computers. This method of printing is usually used to produce the mailing address or a short message to the subscriber (see also laser printer, line printer, and dot matrix printer).

  • input: To enter information, instructions, and text into a computer system; or the information that is entered.

  • in register: See register.

  • insert: Printed material (a piece of paper or multiple pages) that is positioned between the normal pages of a publication during the binding process. The insert is usually printed on different paper than that used in the publication; it is often an advertisement.

  • instant messaging: Text-based messaging similar to email except it allows the user to communicate with others in real time through the Internet.

  • interface: The ability of individual computers to interact; also, the actual hardware that performs the function.

  • international paper sizes: The range of standard metric paper sizes as determined by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

  • Internet: A global network connecting millions of computers for communications purposes, developed in 1969 for the US military, that grew to include educational and research institutions. The Internet facilitates data transfer and communication services, such as remote login, file transfer (FTP), electronic mail (email), newsgroups, and the World Wide Web.

  • Internet service provider (ISP): A commercial entity that provides access to the Internet.

  • intranet: A private network with restricted access to specific users (eg, employees of a company or members of an organization).

  • ISBN: The International Standard Book Number, a 13-digit number that uniquely identifies books and booklike products published internationally (eg, the ISBN for this manual is 978-0-19-517633-9).

  • ISO: Abbreviation for International Standards Organization.

  • ISSN: The International Standard Serial Number, an 8-digit number that identifies periodical publications as such, including electronic serials (eg, the ISSN for JAMA is 0098–7484).

  • IT: Abbreviation for information technology.

  • italic: A typestyle with characters slanting upward and to the right (italic) as opposed to roman type (see 22.0, Typography).

  • JPG or JPEG: Abbreviation for Joint Photographic Experts Group. JPEG is a compressed graphic file (usually with the extension .jpg or .jpeg) normally used for images that require many colors (eg, photographs).

  • justify: To add or delete space between words or letters to make copy align at the left and right margins (see also unjustified and 22.0, Typography).

  • kerning: Modification of spacing between characters, usually to bring letters closer together, to improve overall appearance.

  • keyboard: Input device of a computer or typesetter, with keys representing letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and functions that give instructions to the computer. See also function key.

  • keyline: Tissue or acetate overlay separating or defining elements and color for line art or halftone artwork.

  • ladder: Four or more hyphens appearing at the end of consecutive lines; a typographic pattern to be avoided.

  • LAN: Acronym for local area network, a computer network restricted to an local area (eg, a home, office, or small group of buildings such as a college) (compare WAN).

  • laser printer: A high-quality printer that uses a laser beam to produce an image on a drum (see also dot matrix printer, ink-jet printer, and line printer).

  • layout: A drawing showing a conception of the finished product; includes sizing and positioning of the elements.

  • leaders: A row of dots or dashes designed to guide the reader’s eye across space or a page.

  • leading: Pronounced [led-ding]; the spacing between lines of type (also called line spacing); a carryover term from hot metal composition. For example, 9-point type on 11 points of line space allows 2 points of leading below the type (see 22.0, Typography).

  • legend: Descriptive text accompanying a figure, photograph, or illustration; also a list (key) that explains symbols on a map or chart (see also caption and 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data).

  • ligature: Two or more connected letters, such as æ, set as connected (see 22.0, Typography).

  • line art: Illustration composed of lines and/or lettering, eg, charts, graphs (see 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data).

  • line printer: A machine, driven by a computer, that prints out stored data one line at a time (see also dot matrix printer, ink-jet printer, and laser printer).

  • line spacing: See leading.

  • lines per inch (LPI): A unit of measurement for halftone screens.

  • listserve: A digital mailing list program that manages email addresses of an online discussion group. The listserve program duplicates the messages sent by individual users and automatically sends them to every user in the group. Listserv is a registered trademark.

  • lithographic printing: Formal term for offset printing.

  • live area: The area of a page within the margins.

  • login: The name used to gain access to a computer system or network.

  • logo: One or more words or other combinations of letters or designs often used for easy recognition and promotion of company names, trademarks, etc.

  • long page: In makeup, a page that runs longer than the live area or margins of the page (compare short page).

  • loose-leaf binding: Binding that permits pages to be readily removed and inserted (compare perfect binding, saddle-stitch binding, and spiral binding).

  • lossy: Image compression method that removes minor tonal and/or color variations, causing loss of inforrmation (detail) at high compression ratios.

  • lowercase: Letters that are not capitalized.

  • LZW compression: Lempel-Ziv-Welch (not a file format): nonlossy compression algorithm that allows for compression of image data without loss of quality.

  • macro: A series of automatically executed computer commands activated by a few programmed keystrokes; useful for repetitive tasks.

  • magenta: One of the 4 process printing colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black); a shade of red (see CMYK).

  • mainframe: A large, powerful central processing computer.

  • makeready: The part of the printing process that immediately precedes the actual press run, in which colors, ink coverage, and register are adjusted to produce the desired quality; may also apply to the binding process.

  • makeup: The arrangement of type lines and illustrations into pages or press forms for review or printing (see also imposition; compare live area).

  • manuscript: A typed (or occasionally handwritten) composition before it is published.

  • manuscript editor: See copy editor.

  • margin: The section of white space surrounding typed, composed, or printed copy (see also white space).

  • mark up: The process of marking manuscript copy with directions for style and composition (see also imposition).

  • master proof: The set of galley proofs or page proofs that carries all corrections and alterations.

  • masthead: A listing of editorial, production, and publishing staff; editorial boards; contact information; subscription and advertising information; important disclaimers (see also boilerplate and colophon).

  • matte finish: The surface of dull-coated paper.

  • MB: Abbreviation for megabyte; a unit of computer storage, equal to approximately 1 million bytes.

  • measure: The length of the line (width of the column) in which type is composed or set, usually measured in picas and points.

  • megabyte: See MB.

  • memory: The part of a computer in which digital information is permanently stored (see also RAM).

  • menu: A series of options in a software program, usually presented on the computer screen as a list of text options.

  • metadata: Data about data. For example, a library catalog contains information (metadata) about publications (data). Metadata is used in markup languages, such as HTML, SGML, and XML.

  • MHz: Abbreviation for megahertz, a unit that measures a computer system’s cycle speed; 1 MHz equals 1 million cycles per second.

  • MIME: Abbreviation for multipurpose internal mail extensions, the standard for attaching nontext files to standard Internet mail messages.

  • modem: Modulator-demodulator; an electronic telecommunication device that converts computer-generated data (digital signals) into analog signals that can be carried over telephone lines.

  • moiré pattern: An undesirable wavy pattern caused by incorrect screen angles, overprinting halftones, or superimposing 2 geometric patterns.

  • monitor: A video output device for the display of computer-generated text and graphics.

  • mouse: A hand-operated device that controls the movement of a cursor on a computer screen.

  • MOV: QuickTime video file format.

  • MPEG: Abbreviation for Motion Picture Experts Group. MPEG-1 files are used for short animated files on the Web. MPEG-2 files are a much higher resolution format being developed for digital television and movies.

  • MSL: Abbreviation for must start left, indicating an article must start on a left-hand page. Compare MSR.

  • MSR: Abbreviation for must start right, indicating an article must start on a right-hand page. Compare MSL.

  • multimedia: Interactive electronic products created from digitized data reformatted to include text, images, and sound that allow the user to interact with the information on a computer screen.

  • multitasking: Performing simultaneous functions or manipulations on one computer or workstation, or performing simultaneous data manipulations in one computer program.

  • network: Two or more computers connected to share resources (see also Internet, intranet, LAN, and WAN).

  • newsgroup: The common nomenclature for Usenet News, a tool for group discussion on the Internet. Newsgroups function as group email by providing a posting site for discussion on a particular topic. One can participate by posting a query or by reading answers to queries that have already been posted.

  • nonlossy: Image compression without loss of quality.

  • nonproportional spacing: Spacing that does not allow for the adjustment of space between characters to eliminate extra white space; all letters have the same space, which creates more space around narrow letters and decreases readability.

  • object: An item or computer representation of something (icon or text) that a user can select and/or manipulate to perform a task.

  • oblique: Type that is slightly slanted but not italic.

  • OCR: Abbreviation for optical character reader (or recognition); in digital composition and typesetting, an OCR input device is capable of scanning a typescript and replicating the typed characters. An OCR device creates a digital document that can be edited and searched, as opposed to a scanner, which simply transfers images from paper to a digital file.

  • offset, offset printing: Commonly used term for offset lithographic printing; a printing method in which an image is transferred from an inked plate cylinder to a blanket made of rubber or other synthetic material and then onto a sheet of paper.

  • on-demand printing: See demand printing.

  • opacity: (1) A quality of paper that prevents type or images printed on one side from showing through on the other side. (2) The covering power of ink in printing.

  • opaque: To block out (on the film negative) those areas that are not to be printed.

  • operating system (OS): A program that controls the overall operations of a computer system, intermediating between the application software programs and the hardware, such as MS-DOS, UNIX, Windows, or OS/2.

  • optical character reader/recognition: See OCR.

  • orphan: One or 2 short words at the end of a paragraph that fall on a separate line at the bottom of a page or column, or a single line of type that starts at the bottom of a page or column (compare widow; see also bad break).

  • outline halftone: A portion taken from a halftone that is the shape or modified shape of a subject.

  • out of register: See register.

  • overlay: A hinged flap of paper or transparent plastic covering for a piece of artwork. It may protect the work and/or allow for instructions or corrections to be marked for the printer or camera operator.

  • overprinting: Printing over an area or page that has already been printed.

  • overrun: Production of more copies than the number ordered (see also press run and print order; compare underrun).

  • page proof: A proof that is set or printed in the form of the finished page (see also proof).

  • paginate: To number, mark, or arrange the pages of a document, manuscript, article, or book.

  • Pantone Matching System colors: See PMS.

  • paragraph: A unit of text set off by indention, horizontal space, bullets, or other typographical device.

  • parse: To analyze files by checking tags (codes) to ensure that they are used correctly.

  • password: A private code used to gain access to a locked system.

  • pasteup: A mock assembly of the elements of type and artwork as a guide to the printer for makeup.

  • PC: Abbreviation for personal computer, usually self-contained (keyboard, monitor, printer, central processing unit, and memory devices), as opposed to a terminal or networked computer; often used to refer to IBM-compatible computers.

  • PCT (or PICT): Macintosh graphics file format most commonly used for bitmap images.

  • PDA: Abbreviation for personal digital assistant, a handheld device that combines computing, telephone/fax, Internet, and networking features.

  • PDF: Abbreviation for portable document format, a proprietary file format that captures the elements of a printed document as an electronic image that can be viewed, navigated, or printed.

  • PDL: Abbreviation for page description language. The code generated by a typesetting or page-layout system that tells the output device, such as a laser printer or image setter, where to place elements on a page.

  • PE: Abbreviation for printer’s error or publisher’s error; used in correcting proofs to indicate an error attributable to the printer or publisher (compare AA and EA).

  • peer review: The process by which editors ask experts to read, criticize, and comment on the suitability of a manuscript for publication (see 6.0, Editorial Assessment and Processing, and 5.11.4, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Editorial Responsibilities, Roles, Procedures, and Policies, Editorial Responsibility for Peer Review).

  • peer-reviewed journal: A journal containing editorial content that is peer reviewed.

  • penalty copy: Copy that is difficult to typeset (heavily corrected, difficult to read, heavy with tabular material, etc), for which the typesetter charges more than the regular rate.

  • perfect binding: Process in which signatures are collated, the gutter edge is cut and ground, adhesive is applied to the signatures, and the cover is applied (compare loose-leaf binding, saddle-stitch binding, and spiral binding).

  • perforate: To punch lines of small holes or slits in a sheet so that it can be torn off with ease.

  • photostat: A camera process that duplicates graphic matter; also the graphic matter thus produced.

  • pica: A unit of measure; 1 pica equals approximately ⅙ inch or 12 points (see also point).

  • pica type: Typewriter type that equals 10 characters to the inch (see also elite type).

  • pitch: In fixed-pitch fonts, pitch refers to the number of characters per inch. Common pitch values are 10 and 12. Proportional-pitch fonts have no pitch value because different characters have different widths, eg, the letter M is wider than the letter I.

  • pixel: A unit in a digital image; the smallest point of a bit-mapped screen that can be assigned independent color and intensity.

  • plate: (1) A sheet of metal, plastic, rubber, paperboard, or other material used as a printing surface; the means by which an image area is separated from a nonimage area. (2) A full-page, color book illustration, often printed on paper different from that used for the text.

  • PMID: Abbreviation for PubMed identification number, the unique identifying number assigned to a record when it is entered into PubMed.

  • PMS (Pantone Matching System) colors: A color identification system matching specific shades of approximately 500 colors with numbers and formulas for the corresponding inks, developed by Pantone Inc.

  • PNG: Portable (public) network graphic file format.

  • pockets: Sections on a binder in which individual signatures are placed and then selected as required for each copy to be bound.

  • point: The printer’s basic unit of measurement, often used to determine type size; 1 point equals approximately 1/72 inch; 12 points equal 1 pica.

  • PostScript: A page description language and programming language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas (see also PDL and EPs).

  • PowerPoint: Microsoft software, used to make slide show presentations. File format extensions are the default .ppt (presentation), .pot (template), and .pps (PowerPoint Show).

  • ppi: Abbreviation for pixels per inch, unit of measurement for digital images.

  • preprint: An article or part of a book printed and distributed or transmitted digitally before publication and/or review.

  • press form: See form.

  • press plates: The plates used to print multiple copies on the press (see also plate).

  • press run: The total number of copies of journals, books, or other materials printed.

  • primary colors: Cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y). These 3 colors, when mixed with black (K), will closely reproduce all other colors. See CMYK.

  • print order: The number of copies of printed material ordered.

  • printout: Paper output of a printer or other device that produces normal-reading copy from computer-stored data.

  • print run: See press run.

  • process printing colors: Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK); used to produce color illustrations in print publications.

  • program: A set of instructions for a computer. To program is to create such a set of instructions.

  • programmable key: A key on a computer’s keyboard that, when pressed alone or in combination with other keys, produces a computer command (see also macro and function key).

  • proof: A hard copy of the text and graphic material of a document used to check accuracy of text, composition, positioning, and/or typesetting (see also hard copy).

  • proofreader: One who reads or reviews proofs for errors.

  • proportional spacing: Spacing that allows for the adjustment of character spacing based on character width and increases readability.

  • protocol: A system for transmitting data between 2 devices that establishes the type of error checking to be used; data compression structures; how the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message; and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message; also a detailed plan for a scientific study.

  • PSD: Photoshop (Adobe) file format.

  • publisher: An entity or person who directs the production, dissemination, and sale of selected information.

  • PubMed: A searchable database of scientific and biomedical literature compiled by the US National Library of Medicine.

  • pullout quotes, pull quote: See call-outs.

  • ragged right: Type set with the right-hand margin unjustified (or ragged).

  • RAM: Acronym for random access memory; temporary computer memory used by a computer to hold data currently being processed or created that are lost when the computer is shut down.

  • raster: A digitized image that is mapped into a grid of pixels; therefore, the image is resolution-dependent. The color of each pixel is defined by a specific number of bits.

  • raster image processor (RIP): A device that produces a digital bitmap to show an image’s position on a page before printing.

  • RC (resin-coated) paper: Paper used in composition to produce a type proof of the quality needed for photographic reproduction.

  • RDF: Abbreviation for resources description framework, a general framework for describing a website’s metadata.

  • ream: Five hundred sheets of paper (see also basis weight).

  • recto: A right-hand page (compare verso).

  • redlining: A software program that shows changes made in a document to be seen on screen and on a printed typescript for review by the editor and author. Also called revision marking or strikethrough.

  • register: To print an impression on a sheet in correct relationship to other impressions already printed on the same sheet, eg, to superimpose exactly the various color impressions. When all parts or inks match exactly, they are in register; when they are not exactly aligned, they are out of register.

  • remake: To alter the makeup of a page or series of pages.

  • reprint: A reproduction of an original printing in paper or digital format.

  • reproduction proof: A high-quality proof for use in photoengraving or offset lithography.

  • resolution: A measurement of the visual quality of an image according to discrimination between distinct elements; the fineness of detail that can be distinguished in an image (see also dots per inch).

  • reverse-out, reverse text, or reverse image: Text or image that appears in white surrounded by a solid block of color or black.

  • RGB: Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the primary additive colors used in color computer monitors.

  • right-reading: Produced to read as original copy from right to left, as in right-reading film (compare wrong-reading).

  • RIP: Abbreviation for raster image processor.

  • river: A streak of white space running down through lines of type, breaking up the even appearance of the page; to be avoided.

  • ROB: Abbreviation for run-of-book; advertising term meaning a regular page, as opposed to an ad insert (ie, appears in all versions of the publication). Can also refer to placement anywhere space is available in the publication.

  • roman: A typestyle with upright characters, as opposed to italic (see 22.0, Typography).

  • RSS: Abbreviation for Really Simple Syndication, Rich Site Summary, or RDF Site Summary, an XML format for syndicating Web content.

  • RTF: Abbreviation for rich text format; a generic word-processing format that uses ASCII codes to preserve the formatting of a file.

  • runaround: Type composed or set to fit around an illustration, box, or other design element.

  • run in: To merge a paragraph with the preceding paragraph.

  • running foot: A line of copy, usually giving publication name, subject, title, date, volume number, and/or authors’ names, appearing at the bottom of consecutive pages. Also called footer.

  • running head: A line of copy, usually giving publication name, subject, title, date, volume number, and/or authors’ names, appearing at the top of consecutive pages. Also called header.

  • runover: Material not fitting in the space allowed (see also live area and long page).

  • saddle-stitch binding: Process by which signatures, or pages, and covers are assembled by inserting staples into the centerfold (see also loose-leaf binding, perfect binding, and spiral binding).

  • sans serif: An unadorned typeface; a letter without a short line projecting from the top or bottom of the main stroke of the letter (compare serif and see 22.0, Typography).

  • scaling: Determining the appropriate size of an image and the amount of reduction or enlargement needed for the image to fit in a specific area.

  • scanner: A device that uses an electronic reader (eye) to transform type, characters, and images from a printed page into a digital form; or a device that produces color-separated film or images (see also OCR).

  • score: To indent or mark paper or cards slightly so they can be folded exactly at certain points.

  • SCORM: Acronym for sharable content object reference model. A standard for Web-based education, it defines how the instruction elements are combined and used.

  • scribe: Thin strips of nonprinting areas, such as those between figure parts.

  • scripting language: Programming language used to add additional features to a Web page, such as graphic displays.

  • search engine: A program that enables users to search for documents on the Web.

  • selective binding: A method of binding in which specific contents of each copy produced are determined by instructions transmitted electronically from a computer. Signatures, or specific groups of pages, are selected to produce a copy for a specific recipient or recipient group.

  • self-cover: A cover for a publication that is made of the same paper used for the text and printed as part of a larger press form.

  • separation: Converting images to CMYK for printing; also used to refer to the actual negatives created for each of the 4 colors (see also color separation).

  • serif: An adorned typeface; a short, light line projecting from the top or bottom of a main stroke of a letter (compare sans serif and see 22.0, Typography).

  • server: A computer software package or hardware that provides specific services to other computers.

  • SGML: Abbreviation for standard generalized markup language; markup languages are used to capture, or encode, the logical structure of an electronic document, as distinct from its visual presentation. SGML formed the basis for HTML and XML (see also ASCII and DTD).

  • SGML editor: A context-sensitive editor based on SGML.

  • short page: In makeup, a page that runs shorter than the established live area (compare long page).

  • show-through: Inking that can be seen on the opposite side of the paper, because of the heaviness of the ink or the thinness of the paper.

  • sidebar: Text or graphics placed in a box and printed on the right or left side of a page.

  • signature: (1) A printed sheet comprising several pages that have been folded, so that the pages are in consecutive order according to pagination. (2) A line of text appearing at the bottom of an article that lists the author(s).

  • signature block: A block of text that automatically appears at the bottom of an email message, discussion group, and/or forum post that contains the writer’s name and may also include the writer’s title, company name, location, email address, and personal message; also sometimes used after letters, book reviews, and other small items of copy.

  • sink: Starting type below the top line of the live area, which leaves an area of white space.

  • site license: (1) A licensing agreement that permits access and use of digital information at a specific site. (2) A fee paid to a software company to allow multiple users at a site to access or copy a piece of software.

  • sizing: Adding material to a paper to make it more resistant to moisture.

  • slug: A line or lines of copy inserted to draw the attention of the reader, often set between rules in enlarged, bold type.

  • small caps: Capital letters that are smaller than the typical capital letters of a specific typeface, usually the size of the x-height of the font (see also 22.0, Typography).

  • software: Programs and procedures required to enable a computer to perform a specific task, as opposed to the physical components of the system (compare hardware).

  • solid: Style of type set with no space between lines.

  • solidus: A forward slanted line (/) used to separate numbers, letters, or other characters (also called forward slash; see also virgule and 8.4, Punctuation, Forward Slash [Virgule, Solidus]).

  • spacing: Lateral spaces between words, sentences, or columns; also paragraph indentions (see leading).

  • spam: Electronic junk mail or newsgroup postings.

  • specifications (specs): Instructions given to the printer that include numbers of copies (press run or print order); paper stock, coating, and size; and color, typography, and design.

  • spider[ing]: Software that regularly checks the Internet for Web pages to feed a search engine. Also called a bot, crawler, or Web crawler.

  • spine: The backbone of a perfect-bound journal or book. The width of the spine depends on the number and thickness of pages in the publication (see also perfect binding).

  • spiral binding: A process of binding a publication with wires or plastic in a spiral form inserted through holes along the binding side (see also loose-leaf binding, perfect binding, saddle-stitch binding, and selective binding).

  • spot color: One or more extra colors on a page.

  • spread: Two pages, facing each other; see also double spread.

  • sRGB: A color profile with a very limited amount of color values, primarily designed for vivid images displayed over the Internet. Not suitable for print reproduction.

  • standard generalized markup language: See SGML.

  • stet: Instruction that marked or crossed-out copy or type is to be retained as it originally appeared.

  • STM: Abbreviation for scientific, technical, and medical field of publishing.

  • stock: Type of paper for printing.

  • storage: The capability of a device to hold and keep data.

  • storing data: Placing data in computer storage by recording the data in digital form on magnetic, optical, or other medium, such as discs and tapes, either inside or outside the computer.

  • straight copy: Material that can be set in type with no handwork or special programming (copy that contains no mathematical equations, tables, etc).

  • strapline: The “subtitle” portion of a logo or slogan.

  • strikethrough: To mark a character or some text for deletion by superimposing a line through the main body of the character(s).

  • strip: To join film in a unit according to a press imposition before platemaking.

  • style: A set of uniform rules to guide the application of grammar, spelling, typography, composition, and design.

  • subhead: A subordinate heading (see 22.0, Typography).

  • subscript: A number or symbol that prints partly below the baseline, eg, A2 (also called inferior).

  • subscription: The price for a publication; usually set in annual terms.

  • superior: See superscript.

  • superscript: A number or symbol that prints partly above the baseline, eg, A2 (also called superior).

  • SWK: Abbreviation for “set when known.” Used to indicate information (such as page numbers) that will be inserted later in the production process.

  • SWOP: Abbreviation for specifications for Web offset publications; a color proofing system used to check color consistency.

  • syntax: The spelling and grammar of a programming language that communicates to the computer exactly what the user wants. The computer comprehends what is typed only if it is typed in the computer’s language.

  • tag: (v) To insert a style or composition code in a computer file or document; (n) the code inserted in a computer file or document.

  • tagged: Coded, ie, a document or file with the codes inserted in the text.

  • TCP/IP: Abbreviation for transmission control protocol/Internet protocol; the language governing communication between computers on the Internet.

  • tear sheet: A page cut or torn from a book or periodical.

  • text: The main body of type in a page, manuscript, article, or book. Also used for electronic files that contain only characters, no formatting or illustrations.

  • text editor: An application used to create, view, and edit text files.

  • text wrap: A feature of word processors that makes it possible to wrap text around an illustration. Also called text flow.

  • thumbnail: A miniature display of a page or graphic.

  • TIFF (or TIF): Acronym for tagged image file format; a file format that allows bitmapped images to be exchanged between different computer applications; the preferred format for images, including photographs and line art.

  • tints: Various even tone areas of a solid color, usually expressed in percentages.

  • tip, tip-in, tip-on: A sheet of paper or a signature glued to another signature before binding.

  • TOC: Abbreviation for table of contents.

  • toner: Imaging material or ink used in photocopiers, computer printers, and some off-press proofing systems.

  • trademark: A legally registered word, name, symbol, slogan, or any combination of these, used to identify and distinguish products and services and to indicate the source and marketer of those products and services (see 5.6.16, Ethical and Legal Considerations, Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management, Trademark).

  • transparency: (1) A transparent object such as a photographic slide that is viewed by shining light through it; color positive film (traditional/conventional). (2) Effect created by pixels turned “off” or by a mask ([alpha channel] digital/electronic).

  • transpose (tr): A proofreading and editing term meaning to switch the positions of 2 elements (eg, characters, words, sentences, or paragraphs).

  • trap, trapping: The process of printing one ink on top of another to produce a third color, or to avoid thin white spaces between colors.

  • trim: The edges that are cut off 3 sides—the top (head), bottom (foot), and right (face)—of a publication after binding.

  • trim line, trim marks: The line or marks indicated on copy to show where the page ends or needs to be cut.

  • trim size: The final size of the publication.

  • TTP: Abbreviation for text transfer protocol; a method for moving text from one place to another on the Internet (see also FTP).

  • turnaround time: The period of time between any 2 events in publishing (eg, between manuscript submission and acceptance, between manuscript scanning and telecommunication to the printer).

  • type: (n) Printed characters; a small metal block with a raised character on one side, used to produce characters on paper; (v) the act of typing text or entering commands into a computer on a keyboard.

  • typeface: A named type design, such as Baskerville, Helvetica, or Times Roman, produced as a complete font (see 22.0, Typography).

  • type gauge: A type-measurement tool calibrated in picas and points.

  • typescript: A manuscript output by a computer printer or in typewritten form (see also hard copy).

  • typesetter: A person, firm, or machine that sets type.

  • typestyle: The general characteristics of a typeface (eg, roman, boldface, italic, and condensed type) (see also 22.0, Typography).

  • typo: A typographical error in a published work, such as a misspelling or missing letter.

  • uc/lc: Abbreviation for uppercase/lowercase (letters); as an editing mark, it would indicate using capital and small letters, eg, New York, New York, rather than NEW YORK, NEW YORK.

  • underrun: Production of fewer printed copies than was ordered (see also press run and print order; compare overrun).

  • UNIX (or Unix): A computer operating system designed to be portable, multitasking, and multiuser in a time-sharing configuration. UNIX is characterized by various concepts: plain text files, command line interpreter, hierarchical file system, treating devices and certain types of interprocess communication as files, etc. UNIX is a trademark for a powerful operating system, a suite of programs that make the computer work.

  • unjustified: A ragged or uneven margin (compare justify and see 22.0, Typography).

  • upload: To transfer a digital file or data from a local computer to a remote computer.

  • uppercase: A capital letter.

  • URL: Abbreviation for uniform resource locator; an address for a document or information available via the Internet or Web (eg, http://www.jama-archives.org).

  • vector graphics: The use of geometric primitives such as points, lines, curves, and polygons to represent images in computer graphics; resolution-independent graphic images that can be defined by mathematical equations and scaled with no loss of quality.

  • verso: A left-hand page (compare recto).

  • virgule: A forward slanted line (/) used to separate numbers, letters, or other characters (also called forward slash; see also solidus and 8.4, Punctuation, Forward Slash [Virgule, Solidus]).

  • virus: A computer program, usually hidden in another program, that replicates and inserts itself into other programs without the user’s knowledge and that frequently causes harm to the programs or destroys data.

  • VR: Abbreviation for virtual reality.

  • WAIS: Abbreviation for wide-area information server (see server).

  • WAN: Acronym for wide-area network. A WAN is typically made up of 2 or more local area networks (LANs); the best-known WAN is the Internet.

  • watermark: (1) An image or set of characters produced by thinning a specific area of paper that is visible when the paper is held up to light; often used to show a company logo. (2) Faint characters imposed over type or images on a page to prevent unauthorized copying or distribution.

  • web: (1) An offset lithographic printing press. (2) A continuous roll of paper used in printing.

  • Web: See World Wide Web.

  • Web browser: A program for quickly searching and accessing information on the Web.

  • Web crawler: See spider[ing].

  • web press: A lithographic press that prints on a continuous roll (web) of paper.

  • webRGB: A color profile with a very limited number of color values, primarily designed for vivid images displayed over the Internet. Not suitable for print reproduction.

  • Web server: A computer that has Web server software installed and is able to connect to the Internet.

  • weight: The weight of 500 sheets (a ream) of paper. See basis weight.

  • well: A part of a journal, usually the middle pages, in which advertising is not allowed; usually reserved for important scientific and clinical articles in biomedical journals. Regular features, such as news articles, essays, letters, and book reviews, are typically run outside the editorial well, where ad interspersion may be allowed.

  • wf: Abbreviation for wrong font; incorrect or inconsistent type size or typeface.

  • white space: The area of a page that is free of any text or graphics (compare live area).

  • widow: A short line ending a paragraph and positioned at the top of a page or column, to be avoided (compare orphan; see also bad break).

  • Wi-Fi: The underlying technology of wireless local area networks (LANs), first developed for mobile computing devices and now used for increasingly diverse applications.

  • WMF: Windows MetaFile, a file format created by Microsoft.

  • word processor: A general term for a computer program with which text consisting of words and figures can be input, edited, recorded, stored, and printed.

  • workstation: Computer used for engineering applications, desktop publishing, software development, and other types of applications that require a reasonable amount of computing power and high-quality graphics capabilities.

  • World Wide Web (WWW): The world’s biggest network, used to access information via the Internet with a Web browser (also called the Web).

  • WORM: Acronym for write once, read many, a technology used to write data permanently onto a disk one time and allow it to be read many times.

  • worm: See virus.

  • WPD: Microsoft WordPerfect file format.

  • wrong-reading: Produced to read as a mirror image (from left to right) of the original copy; usually refers to film (compare right-reading).

  • WWW: See World Wide Web.

  • WYSIWYG: Acronym for “what you see is what you get” (pronounced [wizzy-wig]), meaning that which is displayed on the computer screen is essentially how the final product will appear after printing.

  • x-height: A vertical measurement of a letter, usually equal to the height of a lowercase letter without ascenders or descenders (eg, x).

  • XLS: Microsoft Excel file format.

  • XML: Abbreviation for extensible markup language. Like HTML and SGML, XML is a markup language designed to describe content by means of user-defined tags and a DTD to describe the content.

  • yellow: One of the 4 process printing colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black) (see CMYK).

  • zip: (n) A compressed file archive that appears as a single file. (v) To compress files by means of a data compression format that allows files to take up less space on a disc or hard drive.

Previous | Next