At first mention, the name of a state, territory, possession, province, or country should be spelled out when it follows the name of a city. (Because the majority of authors and readers of JAMA and the Archives Journals are from the United States, these journals do not add “United States” after the name of a US city and state. Similar rules are followed by other journals. For example, the Lancet does not add “United Kingdom” after the name of a UK city.)
Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
London, Ontario, Canada
Names of cities, states, counties, territories, possessions, provinces, and countries should be spelled out in full when they stand alone.
Note: Be aware that the names of some cities (and other geographic entities) have changed (eg, Mumbai instead of Bombay, Chennai instead of Madras, Kolkata instead of Calcutta, Kyiv instead of Kiev). The author should be queried as to his or her preference.
Abbreviations such as “US” and “UK” may be used as modifiers (ie, only when they directly precede the word they modify) but should be expanded in all other contexts.
The authors surveyed representative samples of urban populations in the United States and United Kingdom according to US and UK census data.
Use 2-letter abbreviations for US state and Canadian province names in addresses (with US zip codes and Canadian postal codes) and in reference lists (eg, location of book publishers) but not in the text. The US state and Canadian province names may also be abbreviated to save space in tables and figures.
JAMA/Archives Journals Editorial Office
515 N State St
Chicago, IL 60610
Whitfield JF, Chakravarthy B. Calcium: The Grand-Master Cell Signaler. Ottawa, ON: NRC Research Press National Research Council Canada; 2001.
Scott JR, Di Saia PJ, Hammond CB, Spellacy WN, eds. Danforth’s Obstetrics & Gynecology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999.
US State, Territory, Possession
US Postal Service Abbreviation
District of Columbia
DC (Exception: rarely expanded)
Federated States of Micronesia
Northern Mariana Islands
Canadian Province, Territory
Canada Post Abbreviation
Newfoundland and Labrador
Prince Edward Island
At first mention in the text, the name of the appropriate state or country should follow the name of a city whenever clarification of location is thought to be important for the reader, as in the following examples:
In September 2003 Hurricane Isabel made landfall between Ocracoke and Morehead City, North Carolina.
A new scientific conference created by the International AIDS Society took place in July 2001 in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The province name may also be added for less well-known cities:
San Miguel, Hidalgo, Mexico
Studies were carried out at the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor [unnecessary to add “Michigan”].
A cross-sectional survey assessing bicycle safety helmets was conducted in 3 Dutch primary schools in Breda, Maastricht, and Terneuzen [unnecessary to add “the Netherlands”].
Illinois’ Argonne National Laboratory, located about 50 km west of Chicago, supports more than 200 research programs and capabilities, ranging from analytical chemistry of long-lived radioisotopes, to x-ray beam system design, to global climate change research [unnecessary to repeat “Illinois” after “Chicago”].
Do not provide the state or country name in cases in which the entity is well known and such clarification is excessive, eg, Chicago White Sox, Philadelphia chromo-some, Glasgow sign, Uppsala virus, Lyme disease, the Boston Globe.
Do not provide the location of an institution if it is clear that the location is not important, eg, “Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for AIDS…” or “Following the World Health Organization guidelines….”
What does it matter that she was born in Boston, or that after her parents had instilled in her the guiding principles of life, Harvard University had its turn?
In addition to the city name, provide the name of the state or country name in the author affiliation footnote and correspondence address.
Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (Dr Poehling).
Author Correspondence Address:
Katherine A. Poehling, MD, MPH, Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, AA0216 Medical Center N, Nashville, TN 37232–2504 (email@example.com).
Special Case: “New York” may refer to either the city or the state. In the former case, the state name must be added:
New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York
New York University, New York, New York
When giving the location of an institution or organization whose formal name includes a city, do not insert the state or country within the name:
Stanford University School of Medicine in California
Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California
Stanford University School of Medicine (California)
Stanford (California) University School of Medicine
Stanford University School of Medicine, California
Remy I. Smith, MD
Stanford University School of Medicine
Remy I. Smith, MD
Stanford (California) University School of Medicine
Andrzej Szczeklik, PhD, Allergy and Immunology Clinic, Department of Medicine, Jagiellonian University School of Medicine, ul Skawinska 8, 31–0666 Krakow, Poland.
Vivek Goal, Department of Health Administration, McMurrich Bldg, 12 Queen’s Park Cres W, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.
Alain F. Broccard, MD, Division des Soins Intensifs, Départment de Médecine, BH10-92, University Hospital (CHUV), CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
N. J. Bouwmeester, MB, Department of Anaesthesiology and Paediatric Surgery, Sophia Children’s Hospital, University Hospital Rotterdam, Dr Molewaterplein 60, 3015 GJ Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
Konstantinos I. Gourgoloulianis, Pulmonary Department, Medical School, University of Thessaly, 22 Papakyriazi, Larissa 41222, Greece.
Didier Blaise, MD, Unitè de Transplantation et de Thérapie Cellulare, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 232 Bd Ste Marguerite, 13273 Marseille CEDEX 09, France.
Ruben Terg, Unidad de Hepatologia, Hospital de Gastroenterologia Bonorino Udaondo, Escuela de Medicina, Universidad del Salvador, Avenida Caseros, 2061 (1264) Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Ditlev Fossen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, County Hospital of Oestfold (Sykenhuset Oestfold), 1603 Fredrikstad, Norway.
Hajime Fujimoto, MD, Third Department of Internal Medicine, Respiratory Division, Mie University School of Medicine, Edobashi 2–174, Tsu City, Mie 514–8507, Japan.
Kwang Hyun Kim, MD, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, 28 Tongon-Dong, Chongno-Gu, Seoul 110–744, Korea.
Colin L. Masters, MD, Department of Pathology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3010.
Thomas Schwarz, Division of Vascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Dresden Medical School, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307 Dresden, Germany.
David M. Fergusson, Christchurch Health and Development Study, Christchurch School of Medicine, PO Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Neville N. Osborne, DSc, Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6AW, England.
Yasemin Giles, MD, Istanbul Tip Fakültesi, Genel Cerrahi ABD, Capa, Topkapi, Istanbul, Turkey 34390.
Shurong Zheng, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.
Alfred Cuschieri, MD, FRSE, Department of Surgery and Molecular Oncology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland.
J. Skordis, Department of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England.
Gar-Yang Chau, MD, MPH, Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, 201 Shih-Pai Rd, Section 2, Taipei, Taiwan 11217.
Two- and three-letter ISO (International Organization for Standardization) country codes may also be used in addresses. These codes are updated regularly by the RIPE Network Coordination Centre, in coordination with the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency, Berlin, Germany (list available at http://userpage.chemie.fu-berlin.de/diverse/doc/ISO_3166.html).