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Clinical, Technical, and Other Common Terms 

Clinical, Technical, and Other Common Terms

Chapter:
Abbreviations
Author(s):

Roxanne K. Young

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PRINTED FROM AMA MANUAL OF STYLE ONLINE (www.amamanualofstyle.com). © American Medical Association, 2009. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the license agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in AMA Manual of Style Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy). 

Subscriber: null; date: 31 July 2016

Clinical, Technical, and Other Common Terms

UPDATE: In the list of abbreviations (Section 14.11, page 516 in the print), the material in parentheses after both SD and SE should be deleted and should be replaced by an asterisk. This corrects an inconsistency between the advice given on page 516 and in the glossary of statistical terms (Section 20.9, page 894 in the print). This change was made December 4, 2013.
UPDATE: In the list of abbreviations (Section 14.11, page 504 in the print), an asterisk should be added after CI to indicate that this abbreviation no longer needs to be expanded. This change was made July 27, 2011.

This compilation of clinical, technical, and other common terms and their abbreviations is not intended to be all-encompassing but is provided as a short reference. There are many published listings of abbreviations, acronyms, and initialisms.

Many entities share the same abbreviation (eg, American Heart Association, American Hospital Association, American Historical Association, American Humanist Association, American Hyperlexia Association, American Hydrogen Association). Thus, preciseness takes precedence over abbreviating.

In addition, some abbreviations encompass more than one grammatical variant (eg, noun, adjective) of a term. For example, ECG represents both electrocardiogram and electrocardiographic. It is unnecessary to redefine the abbreviation for each variation in usage within a body of work. Similarly, terms that have singular and plural forms (eg, WBC and WBCs) are defined once, whichever form is mentioned first.

When the expanded form is possessive at first mention, the parenthetical abbreviation is also possessive at first mention:

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA's) Implementation Plan for Space Shuttle Return to Space and Beyond was the NASA response to the Columbia disaster in 2003.

Most terms should be expanded at first mention. However, considerations for which this general rule might be set aside include comprehensibility, recognition, and space, as well as avoidance of cumbersome expressions. Exceptions include using the abbreviation instead of the expansion in a long title or subtitle, a letter to the editor, or an informal essay.

Use common sense in deciding whether to abbreviate the terms in the following list and other terms. For example, if “acute respiratory distress syndrome” appears only once or twice in an article, spell it out. If the article concerns acute respiratory distress syndrome and the term is used several times, expand the term at first mention with the abbreviation immediately following in parentheses. Abbreviate it thereafter.

Note: Some terms may be known better in their abbreviated form (eg, HIPAA), and abbreviating them at first mention (with the expanded form following in parentheses) may be appropriate.

Avoid using abbreviations at the beginning of a sentence unless the expansion is cumbersome, eg, a collaborative group name or other acronym pronounced as a word (ALLHAT, AIDS, CLIA, UNICEF) (see also 14.8, Agencies and Organizations, and 14.9, Collaborative Groups).

Do not use an abbreviation as the sole term in a subheading. Also avoid introducing an abbreviation in a subheading:

Avoid:

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

The NIH is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the United States. It is an agency under the US Department of Health and Human Services.

Preferred:

National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the steward of medical and behavioral research for the United States. It is an agency under the US Department of Health and Human Services.

Apply the foregoing concepts to each element of the manuscript. See also 14.0, Abbreviations, and 2.0, Manuscript Preparation, as well as specific nomenclature sections (15.0, Nomenclature), for additional guidelines for correct use of specialized terms and their abbreviations. (See also 4.0, Visual Presentation of Data.)

Note: At a 2004 National Summit on Medical Abbreviations, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) approved an official “do not use” list of abbreviations. It is important to note that this list applies to all medical orders and all medication-related documentation that are handwritten or on preprinted forms used in hospitals and other health care facilities. The JCAHO requirement does not apply to the use of abbreviations in the publication of articles in scientific journals.

However, authors and editors should be mindful of the possibility of introducing error in journal articles when using certain abbreviations and symbols. Other organizations (eg, see the Institute for Safe Medication Practices at http://www.ismp.org) have suggested the desirability of even more stringent initiatives against the use of certain abbreviations and symbols, which are designed to protect patients from potential harm.

Note: JAMA and the Archives Journals do not endorse any proprietary entities in this list.

Abbreviation

Expanded From

AAA

abdominal aortic aneurysm

ABC

avidin-biotin complex

AC

alternating current

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

ACS

acute coronary syndromes

ACTH

Use corticotropin (formerly adrenocorticotropic hormone)

AD

Alzheimer disease

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

ADHD

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

ADL

activities of daily living (but: 1 ADL, 6 ADLs)

aDNA

ancient DNA

ADP

adenosine diphosphate

ADPase

adenosine diphosphatase

AED

automated external defibrillator

AF

atrial fibrillation

AFP

α-fetoprotein

AIDS*

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ALL

acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute lymphocytic leukemia

allo-SCT

allogeneic stem cell transplantation

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

ALT

alanine aminotransferase (previously SGPT)

AML

acute monocytic leukemia; acute myeloblastic leukemia; acute myelocytic leukemia

AMP

adenosine monophosphate

ANA

antinuclear antibody

ANCOVA

analysis of covariance

ANLL

acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

ANOVA

analysis of variance

AOR

adjusted odds ratio

APACHE

Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation

APB

atrial premature beat

APC

atrial premature contraction

ARC

Use symptomatic HIV infection (formerly AIDS-related complex)

ARDS

acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARMD

age-related macular degeneration

ARR

absolute risk reduction

ART

antiretroviral therapy

ASC

adult stem cell

ASC-US

atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance

ASD

atrial septal defect; autistic spectrum disorder

AST

aspartate aminotransferase (previously SGOT)

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

ATPase

adenosine triphosphatase

AUC

area under the curve

AUROC

area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

BAC

blood alcohol concentration

BADL

basic activities of daily living (use activities of daily living)

BAER

brainstem auditory evoked response

BCG

bacille Calmette-Guérin (but: do not expand as a drug: BCG vaccine)

BDI

Beck Depression Inventory

bid

twice a day (do not abbreviate)

BMD

bone mineral density

BMI

body mass index

BMT

bone marrow transplantation

BP

blood pressure

BPD

bronchopulmonary dysplasia

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia

BPRS

Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale

BSA

body surface area

BSE

bovine spongiform encephalopathy; breast self-examination

BUN

blood urea nitrogen (use serum urea nitrogen)

C*

complement (use with a number, eg, C1, C2,… C9; see 15.8.3, Nomenclature, Immunology, Complement)

c, ca

circa (do not abbreviate)

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

coronary artery disease

CAGE

cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye opener (screening questionnaire for potential alcoholism)

CAM

complementary and alternative medicine

cAMP

cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CARS

compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome

CART

combination antiretroviral therapy

CBC

complete blood (add cell) count

CCU

cardiac care unit; critical care unit

CD*

clusters of differentiation (use with a number, eg, CD4 cell; see 15.8.2, Nomenclature, Immunology, CD Cell Markers)

CD*

compact disc

cDNA

complementary DNA

CD-ROM*

compact disc read-only memory

CEA

carcinoembryonic antigen; cost-effective analysis

CEU

continuing education unit

cf*

compare

CF

cystic fibrosis

CFS

chronic fatigue syndrome

CFT

complement fixation test

CFU

colony-forming unit

cGMP

cyclic guanosine monophosphate

CHD

coronary heart disease

CHF

congestive heart failure

CI

confidence interval

CIN

cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

CIS

carcinoma in situ

CJD

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

CK

creatine kinase

CK-BB

creatine kinase BB (BB designates the isozyme)

CK-MB

creatine kinase MB

CK-MM

creatine kinase MM

CL

confidence limit

CLIA

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments

CME

continuing medical education (often used without expansion when describing credit hours, eg, category 1 CME credit)

CMI

cell-mediated immunity

CML

chronic myelocytic leukemia

CMV

cytomegalovirus

CNS

central nervous system

CONSORT

Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

COX-2

cyclooxygenase 2

CPAP

continuous positive airway pressure

CPD

continuing professional development

CPK

Use creatine kinase

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPT

Current Procedural Terminology

CQI

continuous quality improvement

CRF

corticotropin-releasing factor

cRNA

complementary RNA

CRP

C-reactive protein

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid; colony-stimulating factor

CST*

central standard time

CT

computed tomographic; computed tomography

CUA

cost-utility analysis

CVS

chorionic villus sampling

DALY

disability-adjusted life-year

dAMP

deoxyadenosine monophosphate (deoxyadenylate)

D&C

dilation and curettage

DC

direct current

DCIS

ductal carcinoma in situ

DDD

defined daily dose

DDT*

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (chlorophenothane)

DE

dose equivalent

DEV

duck embryo vaccine

DFA

direct fluorescence assay

dGMP

deoxyguanosine monophosphate (deoxyguanylate)

DIC

disseminated intravascular coagulation

DIF

direct immunofluorescence

DNA*

deoxyribonucleic acid

DNAR

do not attempt resuscitation

DNase

deoxyribonuclease

DNH

do not hospitalize

DNR

do not resuscitate

DOS*

disk operating system

DOT

directly observed therapy

DOTS

directly observed therapy, short course

dpi*

dots per inch

DRE

digital rectal examination

DRG

diagnosis related group

DS

duplex sonography

DSM-III

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition)

DSM-III-R

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Third Edition Revised)

DSM-IV

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition)

DSM-IV-TR

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision)

DSMB

data and safety monitoring board

DT

delirium tremens

DTaP

diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis [vaccine]

DTP

diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis [vaccine]

DXA

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry

EBM

evidence-based medicine

EBV

Epstein-Barr virus

EC

ejection click

ECA

epidemiologic catchment area

ECG

electrocardiogram; electrocardiographic

ECMO

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

ECT

electroconvulsive therapy

ED

effective dose; emergency department

ED50

median effective dose

EDTA*

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

EEE

eastern equine encephalomyelitis

EEG

electroencephalogram; electroencephalographic

eg*

for example (from the Latin exempli gratia; see 11.1, Correct and Preferred Usage, Correct and Preferred Usage of Common Words and Phrases)

EGD

esophagogastroduodenoscopy

EIA

enzyme immunoassay

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

EM

electron microscope; electron microscopic; electron microscopy

EMG

electromyogram; electromyographic

EMIT

enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique

EMS

electrical muscle stimulation; emergency medical services; eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome

EMT

emergency medical technician

ENG

electronystagmogram; electronystagmographic

EOG

electro-oculogram; electro-oculographic

ERCP

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

ERG

electroretinogram; electroretinographic

ESBL

extended-spectrum β-lactamases

ESC

embryonic stem cell

ESR

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

ESRD

end-stage renal disease

EST*

eastern standard time

ESWL

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

etc*

et cetera (and so forth) (see 11.1, Correct and Preferred Usage, Correct and Preferred Usage of Common Words and Phrases)

EVR

evoked visual response

F*

French (add catheter; use only with a number, eg, 12F catheter)

FEF25%-75%

forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (see 15.16, Nomenclature, Pulmonary, Respiratory, and Blood Gas Terminology)

FEV

forced expiratory volume

FEV1

forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration

Fio2

fraction of inspired oxygen

FISH

fluorescence in situ hybridization

FLAIR

fluid-attenuated inversion recovery

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

FTA

fluorescent treponemal antibody

FTA-ABS

fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (add test)

FUO

fever of unknown origin

FVC

forced vital capacity

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

GAD

generalized anxiety disorder

GAF

Global Assessment of Functioning [Scale]

GB*

gigabyte

GCS

Glasgow Coma Scale

G-CSF

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GDP

guanosine diphosphate

GDS

Geriatric Depression Scale

GED

General Educational Development

GERD

gastroesophageal reflux disease

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

GH

growth hormone

GI

gastrointestinal

GIFT

gamete intrafallopian transfer

GLC

gas-liquid chromatography

GM-CSF

granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GMP

guanosine monophosphate (guanylate, guanylic acid)

GMRI

gated magnetic resonance imaging

GMT

geometric mean titer

GMT*

Greenwich mean time

GnRH

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gonadorelin as diagnostic agent)

GSC

germline stem cell

GU

genitourinary

GUI

graphical user interface

GVHD

graft-vs-host disease

HAART

highly active antiretroviral therapy

HALE

health-adjusted life expectancy

HAV

hepatitis A virus (see 15.14.3, Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Virus and Prion Nomenclature)

HbA1c

hemoglobin A1c

Hbco

carboxyhemoglobin

HBO

hyperbaric oxygen

Hbo2

oxyhemoglobin; oxygenated hemoglobin

HbS

sickle cell hemoglobin

HBsAg

hepatitis B surface antigen (see 15.14.3, Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Virus and Prion Nomenclature)

HBSS

Hanks balanced salt solution

HBV

hepatitis B virus

hCG

human chorionic gonadotropin (do not abbreviate when used as a drug)

HCV

hepatitis C virus (see 15.14.3, Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Virus and Prion Nomenclature)

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

HDL-C

high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

HDRS

Hamilton Depression Rating Scale

hGH

human growth hormone

HHV

human herpesvirus

Hib

Haemophilus influenzae type b [vaccine or disease] (see 15.14.2, Nomenclature, Organisms and Pathogens, Bacteria: Additional Terminology)

HIPAA

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HL

hearing level

HLA*

human leukocyte antigen (use “HLA antigen”; see 15.8.5, Nomenclature, Immunology, HLA/Major Histocompatibility Complex)

HMO

health maintenance organization

HPF

high-power field

HPLC

high-performance liquid chromatography

HPV

human papillomavirus (add hyphen to abbreviation when indicating type, eg, HPV-6)

HR

hazard ratio

HRQOL

health-related quality of life

HSC

hematopoietic stem cell

HSIL

high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

HSV

herpes simplex virus

HT

hormone therapy

5-HT

Use serotonin (also 5-hydroxytryptamine)

HTLV

human T-lymphotropic virus (use arabic numeral with specific type, eg, HTLV-1)

HTML*

hypertext markup language

http*

hypertext transfer protocol

HUS

hemolytic uremic syndrome

IADL

instrumental activities of daily living (but: 1 IADL, 6 IADLs)

ICD

implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

ICD-9

International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision

ICD-9-CM

International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification

ICD-10

International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision

ICD-10-CM

International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification

ICU

intensive care unit

ID

infective dose

IDU

injecting drug user; injection drug user

ie*

that is (from the Latin id est; see 11.1, Correct and Preferred Usage, Correct and Preferred Usage of Common Words and Phrases)

IFN

interferon (do not abbreviate when used as drug; see 15.4.13, Nomenclature, Drugs, Nomenclature for Biological Products)

Ig

immunoglobulin (abbreviate only with specification of class, eg, IgA, IgG, IgM; see 15.8.6, Nomenclature, Immunology, Immunoglobulins)

IGF-1

insulinlike growth factor 1

IL

interleukin (abbreviate only when indicating a specific protein factor, eg, IL-2) (see 15.8.4, Nomenclature, Immunology, Cytokines)

IM

intramuscular; intramuscularly

IND

investigational new drug

INR

international normalized ratio

IOP

intraocular pressure

IPA

intimate partner abuse

IPV

intimate partner violence

IQ*

intelligence quotient

IRB

institutional review board

IRMA

immunoradiometric assay

ISBN*

International Standard Book Number

ISG

immune serum globulin

ISSN*

International Standard Serial Number

ITI

intratubal insemination

ITP

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

ITT

intention to treat

IUD

intrauterine device

IUGR

intrauterine growth retardation

IUI

intrauterine insemination

IV

intravenous; intravenously

IVF

in vitro fertilization

IVIG

intravenous immunoglobulin

IVP

intravenous pyelogram

JPEG*

Joint Photographic Experts Group (computer file format for digital images)

kB*

kilobyte

KUB

kidneys, ureter, bladder [plain abdominal radiograph]

LA

left atrium

LAD

left anterior descending coronary artery

LAO

left anterior oblique coronary artery

LASEK

laser epithelial keratomileusis

LASIK

laser in situ keratomileusis

LAV

lymphadenopathy-associated virus

LBW

low birth weight (but: low-birth-weight infant)

LCA

left coronary artery

LCR

locus control region

LCX, CX

left circumflex coronary artery

LD

lethal dose

LD50

median lethal dose

LDH

lactate dehydrogenase

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

LDL-C

low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

LGA

large for gestational age

LH

luteinizing hormone

LHRH

luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (gonadorelin as diagnostic agent)

LMW

low molecular weight (usually refers to low-molecular-weight heparin)

LOCF

last observation carried forward

LOD

logarithm of odds

logMAR

logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution

LOS

length of stay

LR

likelihood ratio

LSD

lysergic acid diethylamide

LSIL

low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

LV

left ventricle; left ventricular

LVEDV

left ventricular end-diastolic volume

LVEF

left ventricular ejection fraction

LVOT

left ventricular outflow tract

m-*

meta- (use only in chemical formulas or names)

MAOI

monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAPC

multipotent adult progenitor cell

MB*

megabyte

MBC

minimum bactericidal concentration

MCH

mean corpuscular hemoglobin

MCHC

mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

MCO

managed care organization

MCV

mean corpuscular volume

MD

muscular dystrophy

MDR

multidrug-resistant

MEC

mean effective concentration

MEM

minimal essential medium

MEN

multiple endocrine neoplasia [type 1: MEN-1; type 2: MEN-2, etc]

MeSH

Medical Subject Headings [of the US National Library of Medicine]

MET

metabolic equivalent task

MGUS

monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MI

mitral insufficiency; myocardial infarction

MIC

minimum inhibitory concentration

MICU

medical intensive care unit

MMPI

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

MMR

measles-mumps-rubella [vaccine]

MMSE

Mini-Mental State Examination

MODS

multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome

MOOSE

Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology

MPS

Mortality Probability Score

MRA

magnetic resonance angiography

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

mRNA

messenger RNA

MRSA

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MS

mitral stenosis; multiple sclerosis

MSA

metropolitan statistical area

MSC

mesenchymal stem cell

MSET

multistage exercise test

MST*

mountain standard time

MVC

motor vehicle crash

NAD

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADP

nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

nb*

nota bene (note well)

NDA

new drug application

Nd:YAG*

neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [laser]

NEC

necrotizing enterocolitis

NF

National Formulary

NICU

neonatal intensive care unit

NK

natural killer (add cells)

NMN

nicotinamide mononucleotide

NNH

number needed to harm

NNS

number needed to screen

NNT

number needed to treat

NOS

not otherwise specified

npo

nothing by mouth (do not abbreviate)

NPV

negative predictive value

NS

not significant (see 20.0, Study Design and Statistics)

NSAID

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSC

neural stem cell

NSTE

non–ST-segment elevation

o-*

ortho- (use only in chemical formulas)

OC

oral contraceptive

OCD

obsessive-compulsive disorder

OD*

oculus dexter (right eye) (use only with a number, as in a refraction)

OGTT

oral glucose tolerance test

OR

odds ratio

OS*

oculus sinister (left eye) (use only with a number, as in a refraction)

OS

opening snap

OSA

obstructive sleep apnea

OU*

oculus unitas (both eyes) or oculus uterque (each eye) (use only with a number)

p-*

para- (use only in chemical formulas or names)

PA

posteroanterior; pulmonary artery

PAC

premature atrial contraction; pulmonary artery catheter

Paco2*

partial pressure of carbon dioxide, arterial (see 15.16, Nomenclature, Pulmonary, Respiratory, and Blood Gas Terminology)

Pao2*

partial pressure of oxygen, arterial

Pao2

partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli

PAD

peripheral artery disease

PAS

periodic acid–Schiff

PAT

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

PBS

phosphate-buffered saline

PBSC

peripheral blood stem cell

PCI

percutaneous coronary intervention

Pco2*

partial pressure of carbon dioxide

PCP

Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (formerly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia)

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

PCT

practical clinical trial; pragmatic clinical trial

PCW

pulmonary capillary wedge [pressure]

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus

PDA*

personal digital assistant

PDF*

portable document format

PDR

Physicians' Desk Reference

PE

pulmonary embolism

PEEP

positive end-expiratory pressure

PEG

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; pneumoencephalographic; pneumoencephalography

PEP

postexposure prophylaxis

PET

positron emission tomographic; positron emission tomography

PFGE

pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

PGF

placental growth factor

pH*

negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration

PICC

peripherally inserted central catheter

PICU

pediatric intensive care unit

PID

pelvic inflammatory disease

PKU

phenylketonuria

PMS

premenstrual syndrome

po

orally (do not abbreviate)

Po2*

partial pressure of oxygen

POAG

primary open-angle glaucoma

PPD

purified protein derivative (tuberculin)

PPO

preferred provider organization

PPROM

preterm premature rupture of membranes

PPV

positive predictive value

prn

as needed (do not abbreviate)

PRO

peer review organization; professional review organization

PROM

premature rupture of membranes

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

Psqo2

subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension

PSRO

professional standards review organization

PST*

Pacific standard time

PSVT

paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

PT

physical therapy; prothrombin time

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PTSD

posttraumatic stress disorder

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acid

PUVA

psoralen–UV-A

PVC

premature ventricular contraction

PVR

peripheral vascular resistance; pulmonary vascular resistance

PVS

permanent vegetative state; persistent vegetative state

QA

quality assurance

QALY

quality-adjusted life-year

QC

quality control

qd

every day (do not abbreviate)

QI

quality improvement

qid

4 times a day (do not abbreviate)

qod

every other day (do not abbreviate)

QOL

quality of life

QUOROM

Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses

RA

rheumatoid arthritis

RAM*

random access memory

RAST

radioallergosorbent test

RBC

red blood cell

RBRVS

resource-based relative value scale

RCA

right coronary artery

RCT

randomized clinical trial; randomized controlled trial

RDA

recommended daily allowance; recommended dietary allowance

RDC

Research Diagnostic Criteria

rDNA

ribosomal DNA

RDS

respiratory distress syndrome

REM

rapid eye movement

RFLP

restriction fragment length polymorphism

RFP

radiofrequency pulse

rh

recombinant human

Rh*

rhesus (of, related to, or being an Rh antibody, blood group, or factor)

rhNGF

recombinant human nerve growth factor

RIA

radioimmunoassay

RIND

reversible ischemic neurological deficit

RNA*

ribonucleic acid

RNAi

RNA interference

ROC

receiver operating characteristic [curve]

ROM*

read-only memory

ROP

retinopathy of prematurity

RPR

rapid plasma reagin

RR

relative risk; risk ratio

RSV

respiratory syncytial virus

RT-PCR

reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

RV

right ventricle; right ventricular

RVEF

right ventricular ejection fraction

RVOT

right ventricular outflow tract

SAD

seasonal affective disorder

SADS

Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia

SAH

subarachnoid hemorrhage

SAPS

Simplified Acute Physiology Score

SARS

severe acute respiratory syndrome

SAS*

Statistical Analysis System

SCID

severe combined immunodeficiency; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (use with DSM edition number)

SD*

standard deviation

SE*

standard error

SEM

standard error of the mean (abbreviate only when used with a number; see SD)

SEM

scanning electron microscope; systolic ejection murmur

SF-36

36-Item Short Form Health Survey

SGA

small for gestational age

SGML*

standardized general markup language

SGOT

Use aspartate aminotransferase (for serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase)

SGPT

Use alanine aminotransferase (for serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase)

SIADH

syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

SICU

surgical intensive care unit

SIDS

sudden infant death syndrome

SIL

squamous intraepithelial lesion

SIP

Sickness Impact Profile

siRNA

small interfering RNA

SIRS

systemic inflammatory response syndrome

SLE

St Louis encephalitis; systemic lupus erythematosus

SNP

single-nucleotide polymorphism

SPECT

single-photon emission computed tomography

SPF

sun protection factor

SPSS*

Statistical Product and Service Solutions (formerly Statistical Package for the Social Sciences)

SSC

somatic stem cell

SSC*

standard saline citrate

SSNRI

selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

SSPE*

sodium chloride, sodium phosphate, EDTA [buffer]

SSPE

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

STARD

Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy

STD

sexually transmitted disease

STEMI

ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

STI

sexually transmitted infection; structured treatment interruption

SUN

serum urea nitrogen

SVR

systemic vascular resistance

t1/2

half-life

T3

triiodothyronine

T4

thyroxine

TAHBSO

total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

TAT

Thematic Apperception Test

TB*

terabyte

TB

tuberculosis

TBI

traumatic brain injury

TBSA

total body surface area

TCA

tricyclic antidepressant

TCD50

median tissue culture dose

TE

echo time

THA

total-hip arthroplasty

TI

inversion time

TIA

transient ischemic attack

TIBC

total iron-binding capacity

tid

3 times a day (do not abbreviate)

TIFF*

Tag(ged) Image File Format

TLC

thin-layer chromatography; total lung capacity

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

TNM*

tumor, node, metastasis (see 15.2.2, Nomenclature, Cancer, The TNM Staging System)

tPA

tissue plasminogen activator

TPN

total parenteral nutrition

TQM

total quality management

TR

repetition time

TRH

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (protirelin as diagnostic agent)

tRNA

transfer RNA

TRP

tyrosine-related protein

TRUS

transrectal ultrasonography

TSH

Use thyrotropin (previously thyroid-stimulating hormone).

TSS

toxic shock syndrome; toxic “strep” [streptococcal] syndrome

TTP

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

UHF

ultrahigh frequency

ul*

uniformly labeled (used within parentheses; see 15.9.5, Nomenclature, Isotopes, Uniform Labeling)

URI*

uniform resource identifier

URL*

uniform resource locator

URN*

uniform resource name

URTI

upper respiratory tract infection

US

ultrasonography; ultrasound

USAN

United States Adopted Names [Council]

USP

United States Pharmacopeia

USSC

unrestricted somatic stem cell

UV*

ultraviolet

UV-A*

ultraviolet A

UV-B*

ultraviolet B

UV-C*

ultraviolet C

VAIN

vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia

vCJD

variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

VDRL*

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (add test)

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

VEP

visual evoked potential

VER

visual evoked response

VHDL

very high-density lipoprotein

VHF

very high frequency; viral hemorrhagic fever

VLBW

very low birth weight (but: very low-birth-weight infant)

VLDL

very low-density lipoprotein

V˙o2

oxygen consumption per unit time

V˙o2max

maximum oxygen consumption

VPB

ventricular premature beat

V˙/Q˙

ventilation-perfusion [ratio or scan]

vs*

versus (use v for legal references)

VSD

ventricular septal defect

VT

ventricular tachycardia; tidal volume

VZV

varicella zoster virus

WAIS

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

WBC

white blood cell

WEE

western equine encephalomyelitis

WISC-R

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

XML*

extensible markup language

YLD

years living with disability

YPLL

years of potential life lost

zip*

Zone Improvement Plan (zip code)

* This abbreviation may be used without expansion.

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