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Use of Numerals 

Numbers and Percentages

Stephen J. Lurie

and Margaret A. Winker

In scientific writing, numerals are used to express numbers in most circumstances. Exceptions are the following: ▪ Numbers that begin a sentence, title, subtitle, or heading ▪ Common fractions ▪ Accepted usage such as idiomatic expressions and numbers used as pronouns ▪ Other uses of “one” in running text ▪ Ordinals first through ninth ▪ Numbers spelled out in quotes or published titles. (See , Spelling Out Numbers.) Note the following examples of numerals in text: The relative risk of exposed individuals was nearly 3 times that of the controls. In the second phase of the study, 3 of the

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