Layout is the arrangement of all the elements of design and typography on the page for optimal readability, taking into account the context and aesthetic requirements of the text. To create emphasis, complementary typefaces and various fonts within a typeface may be used. However, only a few compatible typefaces should be used at once. Multiple typefaces on a single page can compete for attention, are distracting, and impede readability.1,3 Two typefaces (a serif for body text and a sans serif for titles and subheads) with appropriate use of styles, such as bold and italics, will most often suffice for a scholarly publication.3 The typesize and weight create emphasis or continuity, as needed. Headings and subheadings create the outline within the text to frame the article. In page layout for a scholarly journal, all of the elements of design and typography come together. See Figures 1 and 2 for examples. For more details on overall design elements, see resources at the end of this chapter.
Examples of some specific uses of lowercase and capital letters, italic and boldface fonts, and small capital letters are provided in 22.5, Specific Uses of Fonts, with cross-references to other chapters and sections.