Some journals publish appendixes, at least occasionally, for material that might be considered ancillary to the content of the article itself (eg, derivation of a complex formula used in the article, a survey instrument used in a study, statistical modeling details). JAMA and the Archives Journals generally do not use appendixes. If these are worthy of publication because they contain important information, they could be considered for online-only publication (see 2.12, Online-Only [Supplementary] Material). On rare occasions, however, they serve a useful purpose for data that cannot easily be presented as a table or a figure and are too central to the article to be deposited elsewhere. In these cases, appendixes are cited in the text as a table or figure would be cited (eg, Appendix 1) and are usually placed at the end of the article, before the references. If the appendix cites references, the references would be numbered consecutively, following the last reference number in the text, and included in the article’s reference list.
Information contained in appendixes is published under the imprimatur of the journal and therefore should undergo editorial evaluation and peer review and should receive the same attention to detail in the editorial and production processes as the main body of the article.