Editorial processing refers to the processing of manuscripts after acceptance in preparation for publication (Figure 1). With the development of electronic document processing, the term manuscript has moved increasingly far from its handwritten origins to refer to a prepublication document, whether it happens to be a hard-copy typescript or an electronic file. Manuscript submission, peer review, editing, processing, and tracking are now commonly performed electronically. A major technical issue for many publishers is the need to efficiently process content for multiple publication outputs, such as print, Web, reprints, and personal digital assistants (PDAs). The use of electronic markup languages such as XML or SGML to provide coding for each content element facilitates the conversions necessary for such multiple outputs.