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Manuscript Preparation

Cheryl Iverson


Journals should establish their own policies on the inclusion of authors' degrees. The policy of JAMA and the Archives Journals is as follows: The highest level of degree or professional certification will be published with each author’s name. If an author holds 2 doctoral degrees (eg, MD and PhD, or MD and JD), either or both may be used, in the order preferred by the author. If the author has a doctorate, degrees at the master’s level are not usually included, although exceptions may be made when the master’s degree represents a specialized field or a field different from that represented by the doctorate (eg, MD, MPH).

Academic degrees below the master’s level are usually omitted unless these are the highest degree held. Exceptions are made for specialized professional certifications, degrees, and licensure (eg, RN, RD, COT, PA) and for specialized bachelor’s degrees (eg, BSN, BPharm) and combination degrees (eg, BS, M[ASCP]).

Generally, US fellowship designations (eg, FACP or FACS) and honorary degrees (eg, PhD[Hon]) are omitted. However, non–US designations such as the British FRCP or FRCS and the Canadian FRCPC are included. (See 14.1, Abbreviations, Academic Degrees, Certifications, and Honors, for the rationale for this policy.)

JAMA and the Archives Journals prefer that authors in the military, or retired from the military, use their academic degrees rather than their military titles.

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