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Authorship: Definition, Criteria, Contributions, and Requirements 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Annette Flanagin

UPDATE: In December 2013, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) revised its recommendations on authorship and added a fourth criterion for authorship. The subsection on Authorship Definition and Criteria in 5.1.1 below has been revised. Authorship offers significant professional and personal rewards, but these rewards are accompanied by substantial responsibility. During the 1980s, biomedical editors began requiring contributors to meet specific criteria for authorship. These criteria were first developed for medical journals under the initiative of Edward J. Huth, MD, then editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, who cited Hewitt's work during discussions at the 1984 meeting

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