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Authorship: Definition, Criteria, Contributions, and Requirements 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Annette Flanagin

Authorship offers significant professional and personal rewards, but these rewards are accompanied by substantial responsibility. During the 1980s, biomedical editors began requiring contributors to meet specific criteria for authorship. These criteria were first developed for medical journals under the initiative of Edward J. Huth, MD, then editor of the Annals of Internal Medicine, who cited Hewitt's work during discussions at the 1984 meeting of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). The ICMJE guidelines were first published in 1985 and are now part of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (see also , Manuscript Preparation). These

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