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Guest and Ghost Authors 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Annette Flanagin

At least 1 author must be responsible for any part of an article crucial to its main conclusions, and everyone listed as an author must have made a substantial contribution to that specific article. As described in , Authorship: Definition, Criteria, Contributions, and Requirements, many journals require authors to sign statements of authorship responsibility and to indicate specific contributions of all authors. In addition to improving the transparency of author responsibility, accountability, and credit, these policies may help eliminate guest authors and identify ghost authors. Traditionally, supervisors, department chairs, and mentors have been given guest, or honorary, places in the

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