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Acknowledging Support, Assistance, and Contributions of Those Who Are Not Authors 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Annette Flanagin

In the Acknowledgment, authors identify important sources of financial and material support and assistance and give credit to all persons who have made substantial contributions to the work but who are not authors., Contributions commonly recognized in an acknowledgment include the following: General advice, guidance, or supervisionCritical review of the manuscriptCritical review of study proposal, design, or methodsData collectionData analysisStatistical assistance or adviceTechnical assistance or adviceResearch assistance or adviceWriting assistanceEditorial assistanceBibliographic assistanceClerical assistanceManuscript preparationFinancial supportMaterial supportGrant supportAcknowledgments should identify anyone who has made substantial intellectual contributions to manuscripts but does not meet the criteria for authorship, including medical writers and

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