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Acknowledging Support, Assistance, and Contributions of Those Who Are Not Authors 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Annette Flanagin

In the Acknowledgment, authors identify important sources of financial and material support and assistance and give credit to all persons who have made substantial contributions to the work but who are not authors., Contributions commonly recognized in an acknowledgment include the following: General advice, guidance, or supervision Critical review of the manuscript Critical review of study proposal, design, or methods Data collection Data analysis Statistical assistance or advice Technical assistance or advice Research assistance or advice Writing assistance Editorial assistance Bibliographic assistance Clerical assistance Manuscript preparation Financial support Material support Grant support Acknowledgments should identify anyone who has made substantial

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