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Misappropriation: Plagiarism and Breaches of Confidentiality 

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Annette Flanagin

Misappropriation in scientific publication includes plagiarism and breaches of confidentiality during the privileged review of a manuscript. (See also , Confidentiality, Confidentiality During Editorial Evaluation and Peer Review and After Publication.) In plagiarism, an author documents or reports ideas, words, data, or graphics, whether published or unpublished, of another as his or her own and without giving appropriate credit. Plagiarism of published work violates standards of honesty and collegial trust and may also violate copyright law (if the violation is shown to be legally actionable) (see , Intellectual Property: Ownership, Access, Rights, and Management, Copying, Reproducing, Adapting, and Other Uses

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