The institutions with which an author is professionally affiliated, including locations, are given in a footnote. The authors' last names are given parenthetically in the footnote following their respective institutions. If 2 or more authors share the same last name, their initials should be used in addition to the last name to distinguish them. Title and academic rank are not included in this footnote. If all authors in the byline are affiliated with the same department and institution, there is no need to include their names in the footnote.
List the affiliations in the order of the authors' names as given in the byline, but, for ease of grouping, combine the listings of authors affiliated with the same institution (eg, if the byline includes authors A, B, and C and if authors A and C are at the same institution, list the institution of authors A and C first and then the institution of author B) and for authors in private practice list the information at the end.
Byline: Gary T. Jeng, MS; James R. Scott, MD; Leon F. Burmeister, PhD
Author Affiliations: Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City (Mr Jeng and Dr Burmeister); and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (Dr Scott).
Byline: Daniel G. Deschler, MD; Robert Osorio, MD; Nancy L. Ascher, MD, PhD; Kelvin C. Lee, MD
Author Affiliations: Departments of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery (Drs Deschler and Lee) and General Surgery (Drs Osorio and Ascher), University of California, San Francisco.
Byline: Carol L. Shields, MD; Arman Mashayekhi, MD; Jacqueline Cater, PhD; Abdullah Shelil, MD; Steven Ness, MD; Anna T. Meadows, MD; Jerry A. Shields, MD
Author Affiliations: Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Drs C. L. Shields, Mashayekhi, Cater, Shelil, Ness, and J. A. Shields); and Division of Oncology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (Dr Meadows).
Byline: Yves Vander Haeghen, PhD; Jean Marie Naeyaert, PhD
Author Affiliations: Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Byline: Mariangela Lo Guidice, BS; Marcella Neri, MD; Michele Falco, BS; Maurizio Sturnio, BS; Elisa Calzolari, MD; Daniela Di Benedetto, PhD; Marco Fichera, PhD
Author Affiliations: Genetic Diagnostic Laboratory, Instituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Oasi Maria SS, Troina, Italy (Mss Lo Guidice and Falco, Mr Sturnio, and Drs Di Benedetto and Fichera); and Department of Experimental Medicine and Diagnostics, Medical Genetics Service, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy (Drs Neri and Calzolari).
Note that the authors are also grouped by their degrees or honorifics (or courtesy titles), so that in the example below, Drs Brown and Stone are listed together, followed by Mr Fingert and Ms Taylor, even though Dr Stone comes after Mr Fingert and Ms Taylor in the byline.
Byline: Jeremiah Brown Jr, MD; John H. Fingert; Chris M. Taylor; Max Lake, MD; Val C. Sheffield, MD, PhD; Edwin M. Stone, MD, PhD
Author Affiliations: Departments of Ophthalmology (Drs Brown and Stone, Mr Fingert, and Ms Taylor) and Pediatrics (Dr Sheffield), University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City. Dr Lake is in private practice in Salina, Kansas.
If there is a single author and a single institution with which he or she is affiliated, use the singular for the sidehead:
Author Affiliation: Department of Neurology, University of Southern California Medical School, Los Angeles.
If an author is affiliated with different institutions or different departments at the same institution, this information should be indicated parenthetically.
Author Affiliations: Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center, Denver Department of Health and Hospitals (Dr Dart, Ms Stark, and Mr Fulton), and Colorado Emergency Medicine Research Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (Drs Dart and Lowenstein and Ms Koziol-McLain), Denver, Colorado.
The affiliation listed, including departmental affiliation if appropriate, should reflect the author’s institutional affiliation at the time the work was done. If the author has since moved, the current affiliation also should be provided.
Author Affiliations: Department of Health Policy and Management, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Dr Lloyd is now with the Department of Emergency Medicine, St Luke’s Hospital, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
For large groups, the name of the group may be given in the byline, and the affiliation footnote may refer the reader to the end of the article, a boxed listing within the article, or another publication for a complete listing of the participants. (See also 2.2.4, Bylines and End-of-Text Signatures, Multiple Authors, Group Authors, and 2.10.6, Acknowledgment Section, List of Participants in a Group Study.)
Group Information: A complete list of the members of the Human Fetal Tissue Working Group appears at the end of this article.
Group Information: A complete list of the members of the Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity Cooperative Group was published previously (Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1110-1118).