1. World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm. Updated 2004. Accessed October 25, 2005.
2. The Nuremberg Code. JAMA. 1996;276(20):1691.Find this resource:
3. World Medical Association. Declaration of Geneva. http://www.wma.net/e/policy/c8.htm. Updated May 2005. Accessed October 25, 2005.
4. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The Belmont Report: ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. April 18, 1979. http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/belmont.html. Accessed September 9, 2006.
5. US Department of Health and Human Services. Regulations for the Protection of Human Subjects (45 CFR 46). http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/45cfr46.htm. Revised June 23, 2005. Accessed October 25, 2005.
6. National Institutes of Health. Guidelines for the conduct of research involving human subjects at the National Institutes of Health. http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/graybook.html. August 2004. Accessed October 25, 2005.
7. US Department of Health and Human Services. Office for Civil Rights—HIPAA: medical privacy—national standards to protect the privacy of personal health information. http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa. Accessed September 9, 2006.
8. Office for Civil Rights. Standards for privacy of individually identifiable health information; final rule. August 14, 2002. 45 CFR parts 160 and 164.Find this resource:
9. UK General Medical Council. Publishing case studies. Confidentiality: protecting and providing information. http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/library/confidentiality_faq.asp. Accessed September 9, 2006.
10. Council for International Organizations of Medical Science. International ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human subjects. http://www.cioms.ch/guidelines_nov_2002_blurb.htm. 2002. Accessed November 3, 2005.
11. Office for Human Research Protections, US Department of Health and Human Services. International Compilation of Human Subject Research Protections. 2nd ed. October 1, 2005. http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/international/HSPCompilation.pdf. Accessed November 3, 2005.
12. Council of Europe. Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, Concerning Biomedical Research. Strasbourg, France. http://www.Conventions.coe.int/treaty/en/Treaties/Html/195.htm. January 25, 2005. Accessed January 8, 2007.
13. UNESCO. Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. Paris, France: UNESCO. 2005. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001461/146180E.pdf. Accessed September 9, 2006.
14. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication. http://www.icmje.org. Updated February 2006. Accessed September 9, 2006.
15. World Association of Medical Editors. WAME recommendations on publication of ethics policies for medical journals. http://www.wame.org/resources/publication-ethics-policies-for-medical-journals. Accessed January 5, 2007.
16. Committee on Publication Ethics. A code of conduct for editors of biomedical journals. http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines/code. Accessed September 9, 2006.
17. Kirsch J. Kirsch’s Handbook of Publishing Law. 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: Acrobat Books; 1995.Find this resource:
18. National Institutes of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. Public Health Services policy on humane care and use of laboratory animals. http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm. Amended August 2002. Accessed November 13, 2005.
19. Yank V, Rennie D. Reporting of informed consent and ethics committee approval in clinical trials. JAMA. 2002;287(21):2835-2838.Find this resource:
20. Weil E, Nelson RM, Ross LF. Are research standards satisfied in pediatric journal publications? Pediatrics. 2002;110(2, pt 1):364-370.Find this resource:
21. Myles PS, Tan N. Reporting of ethical approval and informed consent in clinical research in leading anesthesia journals. Anesthesiology. 2003;99(5):1209-1213.Find this resource:
22. Botkin JR, McMahon WM, Smith KR, Nash JE. Privacy and confidentiality in the publication of pedigrees: a survey of investigators and biomedical journals. JAMA. 1998;279(22):1808-1812.Find this resource:
23. Kent DM, Mwamburi DM, Bennish ML, Kupelnick B, Ioannidis JPA. Clinical trials in sub-Saharan Africa and established standards of care: a systematic review of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria trials. JAMA. 2004;292(2):237-242.Find this resource:
24. Aagaard-Hansen J, Johansen MV, Riis P. Research ethical challenges in cross-disciplinary and cross-cultural health research: the diversity of codes. Dan Med Bull. 2004;51(1):117-120.Find this resource:
25. Beecher HK. Ethics and clinical research. N Engl J Med. 1966;274(24):1354-1360.Find this resource:
26. Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2001.Find this resource:
27. Slue WE Jr. Unmasking the Lone Ranger. N Engl J Med. 1989;321(8):550-551.Find this resource:
28. Riis P, Nylenna M. Patients have a right to privacy and anonymity in medical publication. JAMA. 1991;265(20):2720.Find this resource:
29. Nylenna M, Riis P. Identification of patients in medical publications: need for informed consent. BMJ. 1991;302(6786):1182.Find this resource:
30. Smith J. Keeping confidence in published papers: do more to protect patient’s rights to anonymity. BMJ. 1991;302(6786):1168.Find this resource:
31. Pitkin RM, Scott JR. Privacy and publication. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98(2):198.Find this resource:
32. Court C. GMC finds doctors not guilty in consent case. BMJ. 1995;311(7015):1245-1246.Find this resource:
33. Borg GJ. More about parkinsonism after taking ecstasy. N Engl J Me d. 1999; 341(18):1400-1401.Find this resource:
34. Fontanarosa PB, Glass RM. Informed consent for publication. JAMA. 1997;278(8): 682–683.Find this resource:
35. Snider DE. Patient consent for publication and the health of the public. JAMA. 1997;278(8): 624–626.Find this resource:
36. Clever LH. Obtain informed consent before publishing information about patients. JAMA. 1997;278(8):628-629.Find this resource:
37. Tierney E. Consent for publication of a case report. Anaesthesia. 2004;59(8):822.Find this resource:
39. Botkin JR. Protecting the privacy of family members in survey and pedigree research. JAMA. 2001;285(2):207-211.Find this resource:
40. Beskow LM, Burke W, Merz JF et al. Informed consent for population-based research involving genetics. JAMA. 2001;286(18):2315-2321.Find this resource: