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Contents

Heart Sounds 

Chapter:
Nomenclature
Author(s):

Harriet S. Meyer

The 4 heart sounds and 4 components are commonly abbreviated in discussions of cardiac auscultatory findings; numerical subscripts are used.S1 first heart sound M1 mitral valve component T1 tricuspid valve component S2 second heart sound A2 aortic valve component P2 pulmonic valve component S3 third heart sound S4 fourth heart soundExamples: The presence of an audible S3was consistent with the patient’s ventricular aneurysm. An audible S4 may be due to a variety of cardiac and systemic conditions.Sound names may be written out in full when discussed generically.Third heart sounds are suggestive of congestive heart failure, but an S3gallop may be a normal finding in

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