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Contents

Murmurs

Chapter:
Nomenclature
Author(s):

Harriet S. Meyer

Murmurs are graded from soft (lower grade) to loud (higher grade). Murmur grades are written in arabic numerals. Systolic murmurs may be graded from 1 to 6 (see Freeman and Levine) and diastolic murmurs from 1 to 4. Murmurs may also be presented by means of a virgule construction. Examples: grade 2 systolic murmur grade 1 diastolic murmur grade 4/6 systolic murmur grade 2/4 diastolic murmur The patient had a grade 3 systolic murmur radiating to the axilla consistent with the diagnosis of mitral valve regurgitation.

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