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Jugular Venous Pulse 

Jugular Venous Pulse

Harriet S. Meyer

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Jugular Venous Pulse

The jugular venous pulse contours are expressed with italic single letters and roman words:

a wave (atrial)

x descent

z point

c wave

x′ descent

v wave (ventricular)

y descent (or y trough)

h wave


prominent a wave

giant a wave

steep x descent

increased v wave

abrupt y descent

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