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Jugular Venous Pulse 

Jugular Venous Pulse


Harriet S. Meyer

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PRINTED FROM AMA MANUAL OF STYLE ONLINE ( © American Medical Association, 2009. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the license agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in AMA Manual of Style Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy). 

Subscriber: null; date: 24 October 2016

Jugular Venous Pulse

The jugular venous pulse contours are expressed with italic single letters and roman words:

a wave (atrial)

x descent

z point

c wave

x′ descent

v wave (ventricular)

y descent (or y trough)

h wave


prominent a wave

giant a wave

steep x descent

increased v wave

abrupt y descent

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