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Non–English-Language Titles 

Non–English-Language Titles

Cheryl Iverson

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Subscriber: null; date: 23 July 2018

Non–English-Language Titles


In non–English-language titles, capitalization does not necessarily follow the same rules as in English-language titles. For example, in German titles (both articles and books), all nouns and only nouns are capitalized; typically, in French, Spanish, and Italian book titles, capitalize only the first word, proper names, and abbreviations that are capitalized in English. As with English-language books, government bulletins, documents, and pamphlets, italicize the title.


Non–English-language titles may be given as they originally appeared, without translation:

  • 1. Richartz E, Schott KJ, Wormstall H. Psychopharmakotherapie bei Demenzerkrankungen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129(25/26):1434-1440.

  • 2. Ohayon MM. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo de cefaleas matinales en la población general. Arch Intern Med Ed Espanol. 2004;1(1):41-47. Originally published, in English, in: Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(1):97-102.

If non–English-language titles are translated into English, bracketed indication of the original language should follow the title:

  • 3. Miyazaki K, Murakami A, Imamura S, et al. A case of fundus albipunctatus with a retinol dehydrogenase 5 gene mutation in a child [in Japanese]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;105(8):530-534.

If both the non–English-language title and the translation are provided, both may be given, as shown below, with the non–English-language title given first, followed by the English translation, in brackets:

  • 4. Camici M. Cancro prostático e screening con test PSA [Prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen screening]. Minerva Med. 2004;95(1):25-34.

Non–English-language titles should be verified from the original when possible. Consult a dictionary in the appropriate language for accent marks, spelling, and other particulars.

Reference to the primary source is always preferable, but if the non–English-language article is not readily available or not accessible, the translated version is acceptable. The citation should always be to the version consulted.

Such words as tome (volume), fascicolo (part), Seite (page), Teil (part), Auflage (edition), Abteilung (section or part), Band (volume), Heft (number), Beiheft (supplement), and Lieferung (part or number) should be translated into English.

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