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GPA 

GPA

Chapter:
Nomenclature
Author(s):

Harriet S. Meyer

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GPA

4

The letters G, P, and A (or Ab) accompanied by numbers indicate number of pregnancies, births of viable offspring, and number of spontaneous or induced abortions, respectively. Definitions of viability vary and in articles should be specified. In the expansions below, the clinical meaning associated with the GPA shorthand appears; the Latin terms refer to the individual (see any medical dictionary):

Letter

Expansion of Letter

Clinical Meaning

G

gravida

pregnancies

P

para

births of viable offspring

A or Ab

aborta

abortions

For example, G3, P2, A1 would indicate 3 pregnancies, 2 births of viable offspring, and 1 abortion. In published articles, however, it is preferable to write out the expression, eg:

gravida 3, para 2, aborta 1

Although some sources, including medical dictionaries, feature roman numerals with these expressions, use arabic numerals.

Quantifying prefixes combine with the terms gravida and para ( see list below). Noun forms are gravidity and parity (with prefixes, nulligravidity, multiparity, etc). Adjective forms are gravid and parous (with prefixes, multigravid, nulliparous, primiparous, etc).

Term

Meaning

nulligravida

gravida 0

primigravida

gravida 1

secundigravida

gravida 2

multigravida

gravida >1

nullipara

para 0

primipara

para 1

multipara

para >1

grand multipara

para ≥ 5

Even these Latin-derived terms are somewhat imprecise.5 Therefore, in addition to use of expansions, further specification (eg, single or multiple births, ectopic pregnancy) is required in scientific articles.

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