The letters G, P, and A (or Ab) accompanied by numbers indicate number of pregnancies, births of viable offspring, and number of spontaneous or induced abortions, respectively. Definitions of viability vary and in articles should be specified. In the expansions below, the clinical meaning associated with the GPA shorthand appears; the Latin terms refer to the individual (see any medical dictionary):
Expansion of Letter
births of viable offspring
A or Ab
For example, G3, P2, A1 would indicate 3 pregnancies, 2 births of viable offspring, and 1 abortion. In published articles, however, it is preferable to write out the expression, eg:
gravida 3, para 2, aborta 1
Although some sources, including medical dictionaries, feature roman numerals with these expressions, use arabic numerals.
Quantifying prefixes combine with the terms gravida and para ( see list below). Noun forms are gravidity and parity (with prefixes, nulligravidity, multiparity, etc). Adjective forms are gravid and parous (with prefixes, multigravid, nulliparous, primiparous, etc).
para ≥ 5
Even these Latin-derived terms are somewhat imprecise.5 Therefore, in addition to use of expansions, further specification (eg, single or multiple births, ectopic pregnancy) is required in scientific articles.