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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

Chapter:
Nomenclature
Author(s):

Richard M. Glass

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

The American Psychiatric Association has published 5 editions of a manual for the classification of mental disorders. Each edition has been titled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and has used the abbreviation DSM:

DSM-I (1952)

DSM-II (1968)

DSM-III (1980)

DSM-III-R (1987)

DSM-IV (1994)

Using DSM-IV as an example, these books should be cited as follows:

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.

A text revision of DSM-IV was published in 2000 as Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, abbreviated DSM-IV-TR. This book is a revision of the text describing the diagnostic and associated features, prevalence, course, and differential diagnosis of the disorders included in the DSM-IV diagnostic categories. However, the diagnostic classification and criteria in DSM-IV-TR are unchanged from those in the 1994 DSM-IV diagnostic manual. If DSM-IV-TR is cited for diagnostic criteria, it gives the misleading impression that the criteria used differ from those of DSM-IV and date from 2000 rather than 1994. Thus, a citation for the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria should be to DSM-IV (1994). There are no DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria per se. If a reference citation pertains to the updated descriptive material in DSM-IV-TR, that should be cited. If a citation pertains to both the DSM-IV criteria and the updated descriptive material in DSM-IV-TR, it would be best to clarify that in the text.

Beginning with DSM-III, the diagnostic system involves an assessment on several axes as follows:

Axis I

Clinical Disorders

Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention

Axis II

Personality Disorders

Mental Retardation

Axis III

General Medical Conditions

Axis IV

Psychosocial and Environmental Problems

Axis V

Global Assessment of Functioning

For proper expressions of editions of DSM, see 14.11, Abbreviations, Clinical, Technical, and Other Common Terms. For proper capitalization of designators of axes in DSM, eg, Axis I, see 10.4, Capitalization, Designators.

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