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Contents

Laboratory Values 

Chapter:
Units of Measure
Author(s):

Phil B. Fontanarosa

and Stacy Christiansen

Laboratory Values

UPDATE: We will discontinue using quotation marks to identify parts of an article, but retain the capitalization; eg, This is discussed in the Methods section (not the “Methods” section). This change was made February 14, 2013.

In JAMA and the Archives Journals, laboratory values for clinical chemistry analyses, hematologic tests, immunologic assays, metabolic and endocrine tests, therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology determinations, and urinalysis are reported by means of conventional laboratory units. Table 2 provides examples of conventional units and SI units for clinical laboratory measurement and is intended to facilitate conversion from conventional units to SI units (and vice versa). However, laboratory reference values and units may vary substantially among individual laboratories and are highly dependent on the analytic methods used. Several resources4-8 contain detailed information about these topics as well as tables with laboratory reference values and SI conversion factors.

Table 2. Selected Laboratory Tests, With Reference Ranges and Conversion Factorsa

Analyte

Specimen

Reference Range, Conventional Unit

Conventional Unit

Conversion Factor (Multiply by)

Reference Range, SI Unit

SI Unit

Acetaminophen

Serum, plasma

10-30

μg/mL

6.614

66-200

μmol/L

Acetoacetate

Serum, plasma

< 1

mg/dL

97.95

< 100

μmol/L

Acetone

Serum, plasma

< 1.0

mg/dL

0.172

< 0.17

mmol/L

Acid phosphatase

Serum

< 5.5

U/L

16.667

< 90

nkat/L

Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)

Whole blood

25-40

s

1.0

25-40

s

Adenosine deaminase

Serum

11.5-25.0

U/L

16.667

190-420

nkat/L

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Plasma

< 120

pg/mL

0.22

< 26

pmol/L

Alanine

Plasma

1.87-5.89

mg/dL

112.2

210-661

μmol/L

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Serum

10-40

U/L

0.0167

0.17-0.68

μkat/L

Albumin

Serum

3.5-5.0

g/dL

10

35-50

g/L

Alcohol dehydrogenase

Serum

< 2.8

U/L

16.667

< 47

nkat/L

Aldolase

Serum

1.0-7.5

U/L

0.0167

0.02-0.13

μkat/L

Aldosterone

Serum, plasma

2-9

ng/dL

27.74

55-250

pmol/L

Alkaline phosphatase

Serum

30-120

U/L

0.0167

0.5-2.0

μkat/L

Alprazolam

Serum, plasma

10-50

ng/mL

3.24

32-162

nmol/L

Amikacin

Serum, plasma

20-30

μg/mL

1.708

34-52

μmol/L

α-Aminobutyric acid

Plasma

0.08-0.36

mg/dL

96.97

8-35

μmol/L

δ-Aminolevulinic acid

Serum

15-23

μg/dL

0.0763

1.1-8.0

μmol/L

Amiodarone

Serum, plasma

0.5-2.5

μg/mL

1.55

0.8-3.9

μmol/L

Amitriptyline

Plasma

120-250

ng/mL

3.605

433-903

nmol/L

Ammonia (as nitrogen)

Serum, plasma

15-45

μg/dL

0.714

11-32

μmol/L

Amobarbital

Serum

1-5

μg/mL

4.42

4-22

μmol/L

Amphetamine

Serum, plasma

20-30

ng/mL

7.4

148-222

nmol/L

Amylase

Serum

27-131

U/L

0.0167

0.46-2.23

μkat/L

Androstenedione

Serum

75-205

ng/dL

0.0349

2.6-7.2

nmol/L

Angiotensin I

Plasma

< 25

pg/mL

0.772

< 15

pmol/L

Angiotensin II

Plasma

10-60

pg/mL

0.957

0.96-58

pmol/L

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Serum

< 40

U/L

16.667

< 670

nkat/L

Anion gap Na+− (Cl + HCO3)

Serum, plasma

8-16

mEq/L

1.0

8-16

mmol/L

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Plasma

1-5

pg/mL

0.923

0.9-4.6

pmol/L

Antithrombin III

Plasma

21-30

mg/dL

10

210-300

mg/L

α1-Antitrypsin

Serum

78-200

mg/dL

0.184

14.5-36.5

μmol/L

Apolipoprotein A-I

Serum

80-151

mg/dL

0.01

0.8-1.5

g/L

Apolipoprotein B

Serum, plasma

50-123

mg/dL

0.01

0.5-1.2

g/L

Arginine

Serum

0.37-2.40

mg/dL

57.05

21-138

μmol/L

Arsenic

Whole blood

< 2-23

μg/L

0.0133

0.03-0.31

μmol/L

Ascorbic acid (see Vitamin C)

Asparagine

Plasma

0.40-0.91

mg/dL

75.689

30-69

μmol/L

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)

Serum

10-30

U/L

0.0167

0.17-0.51

μkat/L

Aspartic acid

Plasma

< 0.3

mg/dL

75.13

< 25

μmol/L

Atrial natriuretic hormone

Plasma

20-77

pg/mL

0.325

6.5-2.5

pmol/L

Bands (see White blood cell count)

Basophils (see White blood cell count)

Base excess

Whole blood

−2 to 3

mEg/L

1.0

− 2 to 3

mmol/L

Bicarbonate

Serum

21-28

mEq/L

1.0

21-28

mmol/L

Bile acids (total)

Serum

0.3-2.3

μg/mL

2.448

0.73-5.63

μmol/L

Bilirubin, total

Serum

0.3-1.2

mg/dL

17.104

5.0-21.0

μmol/L

Bilirubin, direct (conjugated)

Serum

0.1-0.3

mg/dL

17.104

1.7-5.1

μmol/L

Biotin

Serum

200-500

pg/mL

0.00409

0.82-2.05

nmol/L

Bismuth

Whole blood

1-12

μg/L

4.785

4.8-57.4

nmol/L

Blood gases

    Carbon dioxide, Pco2

Arterial blood

35-45

mm Hg

0.133

4.7-5.9

kPa

    pH

Arterial blood

7.35-7.45

1.0

7.35-7.45

    Oxygen, Po2

Arterial blood

80-100

mm Hg

0.133

11-13

kPa

Brain-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)

Plasma

< 167

pg/mL

1.0

< 167

ng/L

Bromide (toxic)

Serum

> 1250

μg/mL

0.0125

> 15.6

mmol/L

C1 esterase inhibitor

Serum

12-30

mg/dL

10

120-300

mg/L

C3 complement

Serum

1200-1500

μg/mL

0.001

1.2-1.5

g/L

C4 complement

Serum

350-600

μg/mL

0.001

0.35-0.60

g/L

Cadmium

Whole blood

0.3-1.2

μg/L

8.896

2.7-10.7

nmol/L

Caffeine

Serum, plasma

3-15

μg/L

0.515

2.5-7.5

μmol/L

Calcitonin

Plasma

3-26

pg/mL

0.292

0.8-7.6

pmol/L

Calcium, ionized

Serum

4.60-5.08

mg/dL

0.25

1.15-1.27

mmol/L

Calcium, total

Serum

8.2-10.2

mg/dL

0.25

2.05-2.55

mmol/L

Cancer antigen (CA) 125

Serum

< 35

U/mL

1.0

< 35

kU/L

Carbamazepine

Serum, plasma

8-12

μg/mL

4.233

34-51

μmol/L

Carbon dioxide (total)

Serum, plasma

22-28

mEq/L

1.0

22-28

mmol/L

Carboxyhemoglobin, toxic

Whole blood

> 20

%

0.01

> 0.2

Proportion of 1.0

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)

Serum

< 3.0

ng/mL

1.0

< 3.0

μg/L

β-Carotene

Serum

10-85

μg/dL

0.01863

0.2-1.6

μmol/L

Carotenoids

Serum

50-300

μg/dL

0.01863

0.9-5.6

μmol/L

Ceruloplasmin

Serum

20-40

mg/dL

10

200-400

mg/L

Chloramphenicol

Serum

10-25

μg/mL

3.095

31-77

μmol/L

Chlordiazepoxide

Serum, plasma

0.4-3.0

μg/mL

3.336

1.3-10.0

μmol/L

Chloride

Serum, plasma

96-106

mEq/L

1.0

96-106

mmol/L

Chlorpromazine

Plasma

50-300

ng/mL

3.126

157-942

nmol/L

Chlorpropamide

Plasma

75-250

mg/L

3.61

270-900

μmol/L

Cholecalciferol (see Vitamin D)

Cholesterol (total)

    Desirable

Serum, plasma

< 200

mg/dL

0.0259

< 5.18

mmol/L

    Borderline high

Serum, plasma

200-239

mg/dL

0.0259

5.18-6.18

mmol/L

    High

Serum, plasma

≥240

mg/dL

0.0259

≥6.21

mmol/L

Cholesterol, high-density (HDL) (low level)

Serum, plasma

< 40

mg/dL

0.0259

< 1.03

mmol/L

Cholesterol, low-density (LDL) (high level)

Serum, plasma

> 160

mg/dL

0.0259

4.144

mmol/L

Cholinesterase

Serum

5-12

mg/L

2.793

14-39

nmol/L

Chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) (nonpregnant)

Serum

5.0

mIU/mL

1.0

5.0

IU/L

Chromium

Whole blood

0.7-28.0

μg/L

19.232

13.4-538.6

nmol/L

Citrate

Serum

1.2-3.0

mg/dL

52.05

60-160

μmol/L

Citrulline

Plasma

0.2-1.0

mg/dL

57.081

12-55

μmol/L

Clonazepam

Serum

10-50

ng/mL

0.317

0.4-15.8

nmol/L

Clonidine

Serum, plasma

1.0-2.0

ng/mL

4.35

4.4-8.7

nmol/L

Clozapine

Serum

200-350

ng/mL

0.003

0.6-1.0

μmol/L

Coagulation factor I

Plasma

0.15-0.35

g/dL

29.41

4.4-10.3

μmol/L

    (Fibrinogen)

Plasma

150-350

mg/dL

0.01

1.5-3.5

g/L

Coagulation factor II (prothrombin)

Plasma

70-130

%

0.01

0.70-1.30

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor V

Plasma

70-130

%

0.01

0.70-1.30

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor VII

Plasma

60-140

%

0.01

0.60-1.40

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor VIII

Plasma

50-200

%

0.01

0.50-2.00

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor IX

Plasma

70-130

%

0.01

0.70-1.30

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor X

Plasma

70-130

%

0.01

0.70-1.30

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor XI

Plasma

70-130

%

0.01

0.70-1.30

Proportion of 1.0

Coagulation factor XII

Plasma

70-130

%

0.01

0.70-1.30

Proportion of 1.0

Cobalt

Serum

4.0-10.0

μg/L

16.968

67.9-169.7

nmol/L

Cocaine (toxic)

Serum

> 1000

ng/mL

3.297

> 3300

nmol/L

Codeine

Serum

10-100

ng/mL

3.34

33-334

nmol/L

Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone)

Plasma

0.5-1.5

μg/mL

1.0

0.5-1.5

mg/L

Copper

Serum

70-140

μg/dL

0.157

11-22

μmol/L

Coproporphyrin

Urine

< 200

μg/24 h

1.527

< 300

μmol/d

Corticotropin

Plasma

< 120

pg/mL

0.22

< 26

pmol/L

Cortisol

Serum, plasma

5-25

μg/dL

27.588

140-690

nmol/L

Cotinine

Plasma

0-8

μg/L

5.675

0-45

nmol/L

C-peptide

Serum

0.5-2.5

ng/mL

0.331

0.17-0.83

nmol/L

C-reactive protein

Serum

0.08-3.1

mg/L

9.524

0.76-28.5

nmol/L

Creatine

Serum

0.1-0.4

mg/dL

76.25

8-31

μmol/L

Creatine kinase (CK)

Serum

40-150

U/L

0.0167

0.67-2.5

μkat/L

Creatine kinase–MB fraction

Serum

0-7

ng/mL

1.0

0-7

μg/L

Creatinine

Serum, plasma

0.6-1.2

mg/dL

88.4

53-106

μmol/L

Creatinine clearance

Serum, plasma

75-125

mL/min/1.73 m2

0.0167

1.24-2.08

mL/s/m2

Cyanide (toxic)

Whole blood

> 1.0

μg/mL

23.24

> 23

μmol/L

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)

Plasma

4.6-8.6

ng/mL

3.04

14-26

μmol/L

Cyclosporine

Serum

100-400

ng/mL

0.832

83-333

nmol/L

Cystine

Plasma

0.40-1.40

mg/dL

41.615

16-60

μmol/L

D-dimer

Plasma

< 0.5

μg/mL

5.476

< 3.0

nmol/L

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Serum

1.8-12.5

ng/mL

3.47

6.2-43.3

nmol/L

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S)

Serum

50-450

μg/dL

0.027

1.6-12.2

μmol/L

Deoxycorticosterone

Serum

2-19

ng/dL

0.0303

61-576

nmol/L

Desipramine

Serum, plasma

50-200 ng/mL

3.754

170-700

nmol/L

Diazepam

Serum, plasma

100-1000

ng/mL

0.0035

0.35-3.51

μmol/L

Digoxin

Plasma

0.5-2.0

ng/mL

1.281

0.6-2.6

nmol/L

Diltiazem

Serum

< 200

mg/L

2.412

< 480

μmol/L

Disopyramide

Serum, plasma

2.8-7.0

μg/mL

2.946

8.3-22.0

μmol/L

Dopamine

Plasma

< 87

pg/mL

6.528

< 475

pmol/L

Doxepin

Serum, plasma

30-150

ng/mL

3.579

108-538

nmol/L

Electrophoresis (protein)

    Proportion of total protein

        Albumin

Serum

52-65

%

0.01

0.52-0.65

Proportion of 1.0

        α1-Globulin

Serum

2.5-5.0

%

0.01

0.025-0.05

Proportion of 1.0

        α2-Globulin

Serum

7.0-13.0

%

0.01

0.07-0.13

Proportion of 1.0

        β-Globulin

Serum

8.0-14.0

%

0.01

0.08-0.14

Proportion of 1.0

        γ-Globulin

Serum

12.0-22.0

%

0.01

0.12-0.22

Proportion of 1.0

    Concentration

        Albumin

Serum

3.2-5.6

g/dL

10.0

32-56

g/L

        α1-Globulin

Serum

0.1-0.4

g/dL

10.0

1-10

g/L

        α2-Globulin

Serum

0.4-1.2

g/dL

10.0

4-12

g/L

        β-Globulin

Serum

0.5-1.1

g/dL

10.0

5-11

g/L

        γ-Globulin

Serum

0.5-1.6

g/dL

10.0

5-16

g/L

Eosinophils (see White blood cell count)

Ephedrine (toxic)

Serum

> 2

μg/mL

6.052

> 12.1

μmol/L

Epinephrine

Plasma

< 60

pg/mL

5.459

< 330

pmol/L

Erythrocyte count (see Red blood cell count)

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

Whole blood

0-20

mm/h

1.0

0-20

mm/h

Erythropoietin

Serum

5-36

IU/L

1.0

5-36

IU/L

Estradiol (E2)

Serum

30-400

pg/mL

3.671

110-1470

pmol/L

Estriol (E3)

Serum

5-40

ng/mL

3.467

17.4-138.8

nmol/L

Estrogens (total)

Serum

60-400

pg/mL

1.0

60-400

ng/L

Estrone (E1)

Serum, plasma

1.5-25.0

pg/mL

3.698

5.5-92.5

pmol/L

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

Serum, whole blood

< 20

mg/dL

0.2171

< 4.3

mmol/L

Ethchlorvynol (toxic)

Serum, plasma

> 20

μg/mL

6.915

> 138

μmol/L

Ethosuximide

Serum

40-100

mg/L

7.084

280-700

μmol/L

Ethylene glycol (toxic)

Serum, plasma

> 30

mg/dL

0.1611

> 5

mmol/L

Fatty acids (nonesterified)

Serum, plasma

8-25

mg/dL

0.0355

0.28-0.89

mmol/L

Fecal fat (as stearic acid)

Stool

2.0-6.0

g/d

1.0

2-6

g/24 h

Fenfluramine

Serum

0.04-0.30

μg/mL

4.324

0.18-1.30

μmol/L

Fentanyl

Serum

0.01-0.10

μg/mL

2.972

0.02-0.30

μmol/L

Ferritin

Serum

15-200

ng/mL

2.247

33-450

pmol/L

α1-Fetoprotein

Serum

< 10

ng/mL

1.0

< 10

μg/L

Fibrin degradation products

Plasma

< 10

μg/mL

1.0

< 10

mg/L

Fibrinogen

Plasma

200-400

mg/dL

0.0294

5.8-11.8

μmol/L

Flecanide

Serum, plasma

0.2-1.0

μg/mL

2.413

0.5-2.4

μmol/L

Fluoride

Whole blood

< 0.05

mg/dL

0.5263

< 0.027

mmol/L

Fluoxetine

Serum

200-1100

ng/mL

0.00323

0.65-3.56

μmol/L

Flurazepam (toxic)

Serum, plasma

> 0.2

μg/mL

2.5

>  0.5

μmol/L

Folate (folic acid)

Serum

3-16

ng/mL

2.266

7-36

nmol/L

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Serum, plasma

1-100

mIU/mL

1.0

1-100

IU/L

Fructosamine

Serum

36-50

mg/L

5.581

200-280

mmol/L

Fructose

Serum

1-6

mg/dL

55.506

55-335

μmol/L

Galactose

Serum, plasma

< 20

mg/dL

0.0555

< 1.10

mmol/L

Gastrin

Serum

25-90

pg/mL

0.481

12-45

pmol/L

Gentamicin

Serum

6-10

μg/mL

2.090

12-21

μmol/L

Glucagon

Plasma

20-100

pg/mL

1.0

20-100

ng/L

Glucose

Serum

70-110

mg/dL

0.0555

3.9-6.1

mmol/L

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

Whole blood

10-14

U/g hemoglobin

0.0167

0.17-0.24

nkat/g hemoglobin

Glutamic acid

Plasma

0.2-2.8

mg/dL

67.967

15-190

μmol/L

Glutamine

Plasma

6.1-10.2

mg/dL

68.423

420-700

μmol/L

γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT)

Serum

2-30

U/L

0.0167

0.03-0.51

μkat/L

Glutethimide

Serum

2-6

μg/mL

4.603

9-28

μmol/L

Glycerol (free)

Serum

0.3-1.72

mg/dL

0.1086

0.32-0.187

mmol/L

Glycine

Plasma

0.9-4.2

mg/dL

133.2

120-560

μmol/L

Gold

Serum

< 10

μg/dL

50.770

< 500

nmol/L

Growth hormone (GH)

Serum

0-18

ng/mL

1.0

0-18

μg/L

Haloperidol

Serum, Plasma

6-24

ng/mL

2.66

16-65

nmol/L

Haptoglobin

Serum

26-185

mg/dL

10

260-1850

mg/L

Hematocrit

Whole blood

41-50

%

0.01

0.41-0.50

Proportion of 1.0

Hemoglobin

Whole blood

14.0-17.5

g/dL

10.0

140-175

g/L

    Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)

Whole blood

26-34

pg/cell

1.0

26-34

pg/cell

    Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Whole blood

33-37

g/dL

10

330-370

g/L

    Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)

Whole blood

80-100

μm3

1.0

80-100

fL

Hemoglobin A1c (glycated hemoglobin)

Whole blood

4-7

% of total hemoglobin

0.01

0.04-0.07

Proportion of total hemoglobin

Hemoglobin A2

Whole blood

2.0-3.0

%

0.01

0.02-0.03

Proportion of 1.0

Histamine

Plasma

0.5-1.0

μg/L

8.997

4.5-9.0

nmol/L

Histidine

Plasma

0.5-1.7

mg/dL

64.45

32-110

μmol/L

Homocysteine

Plasma

0.68-2.02

mg/L

7.397

5-15

μmol/L

Homovanillic acid

Urine

1.4-8.8

mg/24 h

5.489

8-48

μmol/d

Hydrocodone

Serum

< 0.02

μg/mL

3.34

< 0.06

μmol/L

Hydromorphone

Serum

0.008-0.032

μg/mL

3504

28-112

nmol/L

β-Hydroxybutyric acid

Plasma

< 3.0

mg/dL

96.06

< 300

μmol/L

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)

Urine

2-6

mg/24 h

5.23

10.4-31.2

μmol/d

Hydroxyproline

Plasma

< 0.55

mg/dL

76.266

< 42

μmol/L

Ibuprofen

Serum

10-50

μg/mL

4.848

50-243

μmol/L

Imipramine

Plasma

150-250

ng/mL

3.566

536-893

nmol/L

Immunoglobulin A (IgA)

Serum

40-350

mg/dL

10

400-3500

mg/L

Immunoglobulin D (IgD)

Serum

0-8

mg/dL

10

0-80

mg/L

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

Serum

0-1500

μg/L

0.001

0-1.5

mg/L

Immunoglobulin G (IgG)

Serum

650-1600

mg/dL

0.01

6.5-16.0

g/L

Immunoglobulin M (IgM)

Serum

54-300

mg/dL

10

550-3000

mg/L

Insulin

Serum

2.0-20

μIU/mL

6.945

14-140

pmol/L

Insulinlike growth factor

Serum

130-450

ng/mL

0.131

18-60

nmol/L

Iodine

Serum

58-77

μg/L

7.880

450-580

nmol/L

Iron

Serum

60-150

μg/dL

0.179

10.7-26.9

μmol/L

Iron-binding capacity

Serum

250-450

μg/dL

0.179

44.8-80.6

μmol/L

Isoleucine

Plasma

0.5-1.3

mg/dL

76.236

40-100

μmol/L

Isoniazid

Plasma

1-7

μg/mL

7.291

7-51

μmol/L

Isopropanol (toxic)

Serum, plasma

> 400

mg/L

0.0166

> 6.64

mmol/L

Kanamycin

Serum, plasma

25-35

μg/mL

2.08

52-72

μmol/L

Ketamine

Serum

0.2-6.3

μg/mL

4.206

0.8-26

μmol/L

17-Ketosteroids

Urine

3-12

mg/24 h

3.33

10-42

μmol/d

Lactate

Plasma

5.0-15

mg/dL

0.111

0.6-1.7

mmol/L

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)

Serum

100-200

U/L

0.0167

1.7-3.4

μkat/L

LDH isoenzymes

    LD1

Serum

17-27

%

0.01

0.17-0.27

Proportion of 1.0

    LD2

Serum

27-37

%

0.01

0.27-0.37

Proportion of 1.0

    LD3

Serum

18-25

%

0.01

0.18-0.25

Proportion of 1.0

    LD4

Serum

3-8

%

0.01

0.03-0.08

Proportion of 1.0

    LD5

Serum

0-5

%

0.01

0-0.05

Proportion of 1.0

Lead

Serum

< 10-20

μg/dL

0.0483

< 0.5-1.0

μmol/L

Leucine

Plasma

1.0-2.3

mg/dL

76.237

75-175

μmol/L

Leukocytes (see White blood cell count)

Lidocaine

Serum, plasma

1.5-6.0

μg/mL

4.267

6.4-25.6

μmol/L

Lipase

Serum

31-186

U/L

0.0167

0.5-3.2

μkat/L

Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]

Serum

10-30

mg/dL

0.0357

0.35-1.0

μmol/L

Lithium

Serum

0.6-1.2

mEq/L

1.0

0.6-1.2

mmol/L

Lorazepam

Serum

50-240

ng/mL

3.114

156-746

nmol/L

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Serum, plasma

1-104

mIU/mL

1.0

1-104

IU/L

Lycopene

Serum

0.15-0.25

mg/L

1.863

0.28-0.46

μmol/L

Lymphocytes (see White blood cell count)

Lysergic acid diethylamide

Serum

< 0.004

μg/mL

3726

< 15

nmol/L

Lysine

Plasma

1.2-3.5

mg/dL

68.404

80-240

μmol/L

Lysozyme

Serum, plasma

0.4-1.3

mg/dL

10

4-13

mg/L

Magnesium

Serum

1.3-2.1

mEq/L

0.50

0.65-1.05

mmol/L

Manganese

Whole blood

10-12

μg/L

18.202

182-218

nmol/L

Maprotiline

Plasma

200-600

ng/mL

1.0

200-600

μg/L

Melatonin

Serum

10-15

ng/L

4.305

45-66

pmol/L

Meperidine

Serum, plasma

400-700

ng/mL

4.043

1620-2830

nmol/L

Mercury

Serum

< 5

μg/L

4.985

< 25

nmol/L

Metanephrine (total)

Urine

< 1.0

mg/24 h

5.07

< 5

μmol/d

Metformin

Serum

1-4

μg/mL

7.742

8-30

μmol/L

Methadone

Serum, plasma

100-400

ng/mL

0.00323

0.32-1.29

μmol/L

Methamphetamine

Serum

0.01-0.05

μg/mL

6.7

0.07-0.34

μmol/L

Methanol

Plasma

< 200

μg/mL

0.0312

< 6.2

mmol/L

Methaqualone

Serum, plasma

2-3

μg/mL

4.0

8-12

μmol/L

Methemoglobin

Whole blood

< 0.24

g/dL

155

< 37.2

μmol/L

Methemoglobin

Whole blood

< 1.0

% of total hemoglobin

0.01

< 0.01

Proportion of total hemoglobin

Methicillin

Serum

8-25

mg/L

2.636

22-66

μmol/L

Methionine

Plasma

0.1-0.6

mg/dL

67.02

6-40

μmol/L

Methotrexate

Serum, plasma

0.04-0.36

mg/L

2200

90-790

nmol/L

Methyldopa

Plasma

1-5

μg/mL

4.735

5.0-25

μmol/L

Metoprolol

Serum, plasma

75-200

ng/mL

3.74

281-748

nmol/L

β2-Microglobulin

Serum

1.2-2.8

mg/L

1.0

1.2-2.8

mg/L

Morphine

Serum, plasma

10-80

ng/mL

3.504

35-280

nmol/L

Myoglobin

Serum

19-92

μg/L

0.0571

1.0-5.3

nmol/L

Naproxen

Serum

26-70

μg/mL

4.343

115-300

μmol/L

Niacin (nicotinic acid)

Urine

2.4-6.4

mg/24 h

7.30

17.5-46.7

μmol/d

Nickel

Whole blood

1.0-28.0

μg/L

17.033

17-476

nmol/L

Nicotine

Plasma

0.01-0.05

mg/L

6.164

0.062-0.308

μmol/L

Nitrogen (nonprotein)

Serum

20-35

mg/dL

0.714

14.3-25.0

mmol/L

Nitroprusside (as thiocyanate)

6-29

μg/mL

17.2

103-500

μmol/L

Norepinephrine

Plasma

110-410

pg/mL

5.911

650-2423

pmol/L

Nortriptyline

Serum, plasma

50-150

ng/mL

3.797

190-570

nmol/L

Ornithine

Plasma

0.4-1.4

mg/dL

75.666

30-106

μmol/L

Osmolality

Serum

275-295

mOsm/kg

1.0

275-295

mmol/kg

Osteocalcin

Serum

3.0-13.0

ng/mL

1.0

3.0-13.0

μg/L

Oxalate

Serum

1.0-2.4

mg/mL

11.107

11-27

μmol/L

Oxazepam

Serum, plasma

0.2-1.4

μg/mL

3.487

0.7-4.9

μmol/L

Oxycodone

Serum

10-100

ng/mL

3.171

32-317

nmol/L

Oxygen, partial pressure (Po2)

Arterial blood

80-100

mm Hg

0.133

11-13

kPa

Paraquat

Whole blood

0.1-1.6

μg/mL

5.369

0.5-8.5

μmol/L

Parathyroid hormone

Serum

10-65

pg/mL

1

10-65

ng/L

Pentobarbital

Serum, plasma

1-5

μg/mL

4.439

4.0-22

μmol/L

Pepsinogen

Serum

28-100

ng/mL

1.0

28-100

μg/L

pH (see Blood gases)

Phencyclidine (toxic)

Serum, plasma

90-800

ng/mL

4.109

370-3288

nmol/L

Phenobarbital

Serum, plasma

15-40

μg/mL

4.31

65-172

μmol/L

Phenylalanine

Plasma

0.6-1.5

mg/dL

60.544

35-90

μmol/L

Phenylpropanolamine

Serum

0.05-0.10

μg/mL

6613

330-660

nmol/L

Phenytoin

Serum, plasma

10-20

mg/L

3.968

40-79

μmol/L

Phosphorus (inorganic)

Serum

2.3-4.7

mg/dL

0.323

0.74-1.52

mmol/L

Placental lactogen

Serum

0.5-1.1

μg/mL

46.296

23-509

nmol/L

Plasminogen (antigenic)

Plasma

10-20

mg/dL

0.113

1.1-2.2

μmol/L

Plasminogen activator inhibitor

Plasma

4-40

ng/mL

19.231

75-750

pmol/L

Platelet count (thrombocytes)

Whole blood

150-350

×103/μL

1.0

150-350

×109/L

Porphyrins (total)

Urine

20-120

μg/L

1.203

25-144

nmol/L

Potassium

Serum

3.5-5.0

mEq/L

1.0

3.5-5.0

mmol/L

Prealbumin

Serum

19.5-35.8

mg/dL

10

195-358

mg/L

Pregnanediol

Urine

< 2.6

mg/24 h

3.12

< 8

μmol/d

Pregnanetriol

Urine

< 2.5

mg/24 h

2.972

< 7.5

μmol/d

Primidone

Serum, plasma

5-12

μg/mL

4.582

23-55

μmol/L

Procainamide

Serum, plasma

4-10

μg/mL

4.25

17-42

μmol/L

Progesterone

Serum

0.15-25

ng/mL

3.18

0.5-79.5

nmol/L

Prolactin

Serum

3.8-23.2

μg/L

43.478

165-1010

pmol/L

Proline

Plasma

1.2-3.9

mg/dL

86.858

104-340

μmol/L

Propoxyphene

Plasma

0.1-0.4

μg/mL

2.946

0.3-1.2

μmol/L

Propranolol

Serum

50-100

ng/mL

3.856

193-386

nmol/L

Prostate-specific antigen

Serum

< 4.0

ng/mL

1.0

< 4.0

μg/L

Protein (total)

Serum

6.0-8.0

g/dL

10.0

60-80

g/L

Prothrombin time (PT)

Plasma

10-13

s

1.0

10-13

s

Protoporphyrin

Red blood cells

15-50

μg/dL

0.0178

0.27-0.89

μmol/L

Protriptyline

Serum, plasma

70-250

μg/dL

3.787

266-950

nmol/L

Pyridoxine (see Vitamin B6)

Pyruvate

Plasma

0.5-1.5

mg/dL

113.56

60-170

μmol/L

Quinidine

Serum

2.0-5.0

μg/mL

3.082

6.2-15.4

μmol/L

Red blood cell count

Whole blood

3.9-5.5

×106/μL

1.0

3.9-5.5

×1012/L

Renin

Plasma

30-40

pg/mL

0.0237

0.7-1.0

pmol/L

Reticulocyte count

Whole blood

25-75

×103/μL

1.0

25-75

×109/L

Reticulocyte count

Whole blood

0.5-1.5

% of red blood cells

0.01

0.005-0.015

Proportion of red blood cells

Retinol (see Vitamin A)

Riboflavin (see Vitamin B2)

Rifampin

Serum

4-40

mg/L

1.215

5-49

μmol/L

Salicylates

Serum, plasma

150-300

μg/mL

7.24

1086-2172

μmol/L

Selenium

Serum, plasma

58-234

μg/L

0.0127

0.74-2.97

μmol/L

Serine

Plasma

0.7-2.0

mg/dL

95.156

65-193

μmol/L

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)

Whole blood

50-200

ng/mL

0.00568

0.28-1.14

μmol/L

Sex hormone–binding globulin

Serum

1.5-2.0

μg/mL

8.896

13-17

nmol/L

Sodium

Serum

136-142

mEq/L

1.0

136-142

mmol/L

Somatomedin C (Insulinlike growth factor)

Serum

130-450

ng/mL

0.131

18-60

nmol/L

Somatostatin

Plasma

< 25

pg/mL

0.6110

< 15

pmol/L

Streptomycin

Serum

7-50

mg/L

1.719

12-86

μmol/L

Strychnine

Whole blood

< 0.5

mg/L

2.99

< 1.5

μmol/L

Substance P

Plasma

< 240

pg/mL

0.742

< 180

pmol/L

Sulfate

Serum

10-32

mg/L

31.188

310-990

μmol/L

Sulfmethemoglobin

Whole blood

< 1.0

% of total hemoglobin

0.01

< 0.010

Proportion of total hemoglobin

Taurine

Plasma

0.3-2.1

mg/dL

79.91

24-168

μmol/L

Testosterone

Serum

300-1200

ng/dL

0.0347

10.4-41.6

nmol/L

Tetrahydrocannabinol

Serum

< 0.20

μg/mL

3.180

< 0.60

μmol/L

Theophylline

Serum, plasma

10-20

μg/mL

5.55

56-111

μmol/L

Thiamine (see Vitamin B1)

Thiopental

Serum, plasma

1-5

μg/mL

4.144

4.1-20.7

μmol/L

Thioridazine

Serum, plasma

1.0-1.5

μg/mL

2.699

2.7-4.1

μmol/L

Threonine

Plasma

0.9-2.5

mg/dL

84

75-210

μmol/L

Thrombin time

Plasma

16-24

s

1.0

16.24

s

Thrombocytes (see Platelet count)

Thyroglobulin

Serum

3-42

ng/mL

1.0

3-42

μg/L

Thyrotropin

Serum

0.4-4.2

mIU/L

1.0

0.4-4.2

mIU/L

Thyroxine, free (FT4)

Serum

0.9-2.3

ng/dL

12.871

12-30

pmol/L

Thyroxine, total (T4)

Serum

5.5-12.5

μg/dL

12.871

71-160

nmol/L

Thyroxine-binding globulin

Serum

16.0-24.0

μg/mL

17.094

206-309

nmol/L

Tissue plasminogen activator

Plasma

< 0.04

IU/mL

1000

< 40

IU/L

Tobramycin

Serum, plasma

5-10

μg/mL

2.139

10-21

μmol/L

Tocainide

Serum

4-10

μg/mL

5.201

21-52

μmol/L

α-Tocopherol (see Vitamin E)

Tolbutamide

Serum

80-240

μg/mL

3.70

296-888

μmol/L

Transferrin

Serum

200-400

mg/dL

0.123

2.5-5.0

μmol/L

Triglycerides

Serum

< 160

mg/dL

0.0113

1.8

mmol/L

Triiodothyronine, free (FT3)

Serum

130-450

pg/dL

0.0154

2.0-7.0

pmol/L

Triiodothyronine, total (T3)

Serum

60-180

ng/dL

0.0154

0.92-2.76

nmol/L

Troponin I

Serum

0-0.4

ng/mL

1.0

0-0.4

μg/L

Troponin T

Serum

0-0.1

ng/mL

1.0

0-0.1

μg/L

Tryptophan

Plasma

0.5-1.5

mg/dL

48.967

25-73

μmol/L

Tyrosine

Plasma

0.4-1.6

mg/dL

55.19

20-90

μmol/L

Urea nitrogen

Serum

8-23

mg/dL

0.357

2.9-8.2

mmol/L

Uric acid

Serum

4.0-8.0

mg/dL

59.485

240-480

μmol/L

Urobilinogen

Urine

1-3.5

mg/24 h

1.7

1.7-5.9

μmol/d

Valine

Plasma

1.7-3.7

mg/dL

85.361

145-315

μmol/L

Valproic acid

Serum, plasma

50-100

μg/mL

6.934

346-693

μmol/L

Vancomycin

Serum, plasma

20-40

μg/mL

0.690

14-28

μmol/L

Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

Urine

2.1-7.6

mg/24 h

5.046

11-38

μmol/d

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

Plasma

< 50

pg/mL

0.2960

< 15

pmol/L

Vasopressin

Plasma

1.5-2.0

pg/mL

0.923

1.0-2.0

pmol/L

Verapamil

Serum, Plasma

100-500

ng/mL

2.20

220-1100

nmol/L

Vitamin A (retinol)

Serum

30-80

μg/dL

0.0349

1.05-2.80

μmol/L

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Serum

0-2

μg/dL

29.6

0-75

nmol/L

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Serum

4-24

μg/dL

26.6

106-638

nmol/L

Vitamin B3

Whole blood

0.2-1.8

μg/mL

4.56

0.9-8.2

μmol/L

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Plasma

5-30

ng/mL

4.046

20-121

nmol/L

Vitamin B12

Serum

160-950

pg/mL

0.7378

118-701

pmol/L

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Serum

0.4-1.5

mg/dL

56.78

23-85

μmol/L

Vitamin D (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D)

Serum

25-45

pg/mL

2.6

60-108

pmol/L

Vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D)

Plasma

14-60

ng/mL

2.496

35-150

nmol/L

Vitamin E (a-tocopherol)

Serum

5-18

μg/mL

23.22

12-42

μmol/L

Vitamin K

Serum

0.13-1.19

ng/mL

2.22

0.29-2.64

nmol/L

Warfarin

Serum, plasma

1.0-10

μg/mL

3.247

3.2-32.4

μmol/L

White blood cell count

Whole blood

4500-11 000

/μL

0.001

4.5-11.0

×109/L

    Differential count

        Neutrophils-segmented

Whole blood

1800-7800

/μL

0.001

1.8-7.8

×109/L

        Neutrophils-bands

Whole blood

0-700

/μL

0.001

0-0.70

×109/L

        Lymphocytes

Whole blood

1000-4800

/μL

0.001

1.0-4.8

×109/L

        Monocytes

Whole blood

0-800

/μL

0.001

0-0.80

×109/L

        Eosinophils

Whole blood

0-450

/μL

0.001

0-0.45

×109/L

        Basophils

Whole blood

0-200

/μL

0.001

0-0.20

×109/L

    Differential count (number fraction)

        Neutrophils-segmented

Whole blood

56

%

0.01

0.56

Proportion of 1.0

        Neutrophils-bands

Whole blood

3

%

0.01

0.03

Proportion of 1.0

        Lymphocytes

Whole blood

34

%

0.01

0.34

Proportion of 1.0

        Monocytes

Whole blood

4

%

0.01

0.04

Proportion of 1.0

        Eosinophils

Whole blood

2.7

%

0.01

0.027

Proportion of 1.0

        Basophils

Whole blood

0.3

%

0.01

0.003

Proportion of 1.0

Zidovudine

Serum, plasma

0.15-0.27

μg/mL

3.7

0.56-1.01

μmol/L

Zinc

Serum

75-120

μg/dL

0.153

11.5-18.5

μmol/L

a The laboratory values and reference ranges are provided for illustration only and are not intended to be comprehensive or definitive. Each laboratory determines its own values, and reference ranges are highly method dependent. Reference values given are for adults. For some entries for which specific molecular masses are not known (eg, proteins), reference values in SI are given as mass amounts per liter.

The information in this table is adapted from and based on the following sources: (1) Kratz A, Ferraro M, Sluss PM, Lewandrowski KB. Laboratory reference values. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1548-1563; (2) Young DS, Huth EJ. SI Units for Clinical Measurement. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians; 1998; (3) Henry JB, ed. Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2001; (4) Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al, eds. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2004; and (5) Goldman L, Ausiello D. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2004.

For laboratory values reported in JAMA and in the Archives Journals, factors for converting conventional units to SI units should be provided in the article. In text, the conversion factor should be given once, at first mention of the laboratory value, in parentheses following the conventional unit.

The blood glucose concentration of 126 mg/dL (to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.055) was used as a criterion for diagnosing diabetes.

For articles in which several laboratory values are reported in text, the conversion factors may be listed in a paragraph at the end of the Methods section. For figures or tables, the conversion factors should be included in legends or in footnotes, respectively, but not in the abstract of the article. (See Footnotes in 4.1.3, Visual Presentation of Data, Tables, Table Components.)

Hematologic values should be reported by means of conventional units.

The complete blood cell count showed a hemoglobin level of 13.4 g/dL, hematocrit of 41%, platelet count of 180 000/μL, and white blood cell count of 6500/μL.

For enzymatic activity, the international unit (IU) is used; 1 IU equals the amount of enzyme generating 1 μmol of product per minute.

The peak follicle-stimulating hormone level was 48 mIU/mL.

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