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Crossover Trials 

Study Design and Statistics

Margaret A. Winker

and Stephen J. Lurie

In a crossover trial, participants receive more than 1 of the treatments under investigation, usually in a randomly determined sequence, and with a prespecified amount of time (a ) between sequential treatments. The participants and the investigators are generally to the treatment assignment (double-blinded). This experimental design is often used for evaluating drug treatments. Each participant serves as his or her own control, thereby eliminating variability when comparing treatment effects and reducing the sample size needed to detect a effect. Most considerations of parallel-design randomized trials apply. Rather than indicating which participants were assigned to which condition, the CONSORT flow

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