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Lowercase

Chapter:
Typography
Author(s):

Annette Flanagin

Lowercase

Lowercase letters are smaller than capital (or uppercase) letters and are differently configured (eg, a, A). The term lowercase originates from the earlier use of manually set wooden or metal characters that were kept by compositors in 2 cases; the lower case contained the smaller letters and the upper case contained the larger capital letters.1 Sentences are typically set with the initial letter of the first word of a sentence as a capital letter and all other letters lowercase. In titles, the initial letter of each major word is set as a capital letter and all other letters are lowercase. Some publications use sentence-style lowercase for titles, with only the initial letter of the first word being a capital. JAMA and the Archives Journals use a more traditional mix of initial uppercase and lowercase letters for titles (see also 10.2, Capitalization, Titles and Headings).

Heterogeneity in Incidence Rates of Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Syndromes

Depressive Symptoms, Vascular Disease, and Mild Cognitive Impairment: Findings From the Cardiovascular Health Study

The format recommended herein for bibliographic references follows sentence-style lowercase for article titles and mixed capitals and lowercase for book titles (see also 3.9.1, References, Titles, English-Language Titles).

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