The byline or signature block should contain each author’s full name (unless initials are preferred to full names), including, for example, Jr, Sr, II, III, and middle initials, and highest academic degree(s). Authors should be consistent in the presentation of their names in all published works for ease of use by indexers, cataloguers, readers, and data searchers.
If the byline includes names of Chinese, Japanese, or Vietnamese origin, or other names in which the family name is traditionally given first, some journals—and some authors—may westernize the order and give the surname last. For example, an author whose name is conventionally given as Zhou Jing, where Zhou is the surname, might list his name as Jing Zhou for publication in a Western journal, or the journal might elect to publish it that way regardless of the author’s preference. For journals that choose to follow the author’s preference in presentation of the order of first name (given name, familiar name) and surname, and that therefore might retain the conventional (ie, non–Western) presentation of such names in the byline, the surname may be distinguished from the first name by capital letters (eg, ZHOU Jing)3 or some other typographic distinction (eg, Zhou Jing or Zhou Jing).
Alternatively, a preferred citation might be published, as suggested by Black4 in a discussion of treatment of names of authors from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries. Although this would address only the authors shown in the citation, it is a viable alternative and one that might be used for all citations or only those that might otherwise be incorrectly cited (see also 2.2.4, Multiple Authors, Group Authors).
JAMA and the Archives Journals favor following the authors' preferences on presentation of their names and recommend querying the author at the editing stage to ensure that the surname is properly identified in the online tagging. Online tagging is critical for accurate indexing since searching by author’s surname depends on appropriate tagging by the journal and identification of surname by the searcher. (See 2.10.15, Preferred Citation Format.) See the Chicago Manual of Style for more details on conventional presentations of names from various cultures.5