Show Summary Details
Page of

Clock Referents 

Clock Referents
Correct and Preferred Usage

Roxanne K. Young

Page of

PRINTED FROM AMA MANUAL OF STYLE ONLINE ( © American Medical Association, 2009. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the license agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in AMA Manual of Style Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 27 January 2020

Occasionally, reference to a locus of insertion, position, or attitude is given in terms of a clock-face orientation, as seen by the viewer (see also , Numbers and Percentages, Use of Numerals, Measures of Time). Note: The terms clockwise and counterclockwise can also be confusing. The point of reference (eg, that of observer vs subject) should be specified if the usage is ambiguous.

Access to the complete content on AMA Manual of Style requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.