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Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
Item type: 
Style for subtitles follows that for titles (see 3.9, Titles) for spelling, abbreviations, numbers, capitalization, and use of italics, except that for journal articles the subtitle begins with a lowercase letter. A colon and space separate title and subtitle, even if a period was used in the original. Do not change an em dash to a colon. When the title ends with a question mark, the question mark is retained in the reference and replaces the colon as the delimiter. If the subtitle is numbered, as is common when articles in a series have the same title but different—numbered—subtitles, use a comma after the title, followed by a roman numeral immediately preceding the colon. If the title or subtitle ends with a closing quotation mark, the ending period should appear after the quotation mark because the end punctuation is not part of the original content....