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Case-Control Studies.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
Item type: 
Case-control studies , which are always retrospective, compare those who have had an outcome or event ( cases ) with those who have not ( controls ). Cases and controls are then evaluated for exposure to various risk factors and thus should not be selected on the basis of their exposure to the risk factors under investigation. Cases and controls generally are matched according to specific characteristics (eg, age, sex, duration of disease) to reduce ...