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Inappropriate Manipulation of Digital Images.  

Annette Flanagin

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11 ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
Item type: 
Image-processing software, such as Adobe Photoshop, has made it relatively easy for authors to manipulate images to highlight a specific outcome or feature by cropping; deleting items; adjusting color, brightness, or contrast; or cloning/copying images. These same applications can be used by journal staff to screen digital images for evidence of inappropriate manipulation and fraudulent manipulation....