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Age.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0024
Item type: 
section
Discrimination based on age (young or old) is ageism. Because terms like seniors, elderly, the aged, aging dependents, old-old, young-old, and similar "other-ing" terms connote a stereotype, avoid using them. Terms such as older persons, older people, older adults, older patients, older individuals, persons 65 years and older...

Inclusive Language.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.021.0033
Item type: 
section
Any classification according to a singular identity polarizes people in a particular way, but if we take note of the fact that we have many different identities . . . we can see that the polarization of one can be resisted by a fuller picture. So knowledge and understanding are extremely important to fight against singular polarization....

Personal Pronouns.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0022
Item type: 
section
Avoid sex-specific pronouns in cases in which sex specificity is irrelevant. Do not use common-gender “pronouns” (eg, “s/he,” “shem,” “shim”). Reword the sentence to use a singular or plural non–sex-specific pronoun, neutral noun equivalent, or change of voice; or use “he or she” (“him or her,” “his or her[s],” “they or their[s]”). The use of the “singular they” construction is permitted when rewriting would be awkward or unclear (...

Race/Ethnicity.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0023
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: In chapter 11.12.3, Race/Ethnicity, a paragraph was added to explain the decision to capitalize Black and White racial terms and to use them as modifiers, not as nouns. This change was made August 27, 2020. Race is defined as “a category of humankind that shares certain distinctive physical traits.”...

Sex/Gender.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0021
Item type: 
section
Sex refers to the biological characteristics of males and females. Gender includes more than sex and serves as a cultural indicator of a person’s personal and social identity. An important consideration when referring to sex is the level of specificity required: specify sex when it is relevant. In research articles, sex/gender should be reported and defined, and how sex/gender was assessed should be described....

Sexual Orientation.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0027
Item type: 
section
Sexual orientation should be indicated in a manuscript only when scientifically relevant. The term sexual preference should be avoided because it implies a voluntary choice of sexual orientation not supported by the scientific literature. In some contexts, reference to specific sexual behaviors (eg, men who have sex with men...

Socioeconomic Status.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0025
Item type: 
section
Avoid labeling people with their socioeconomic status, such as the poor or the unemployed. Instead, terms such as low income and no income are preferred. See also limited-income, low-income, resource-limited, resource poor, transitional . Previous | Next Avoid labeling (and thus equating) people with their disabilities or diseases (eg, the blind, schizophrenics, epileptics). Instead, put the person first. Avoid describing persons as ...

Terms for Persons With Diseases, Disorders, or Disabilities.  

Tracy Frey and Roxanne K. Young

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0011.022.0026
Item type: 
section
Avoid labeling (and thus equating) people with their disabilities or diseases (eg, the blind, schizophrenics, epileptics). Instead, put the person first. Avoid describing persons as victims or with other emotional terms that suggest helplessness (afflicted with, suffering from, stricken with, maimed). Avoid euphemistic descriptors, such as ...

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