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Allegations of scientific misconduct (eg, fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) must be considered carefully with regard to rules of confidentiality. In cases of credible allegations of such misconduct, an editor may need to disclose specific confidential information in a very controlled and limited manner.3 For example, after a credible allegation of scientific misconduct, an editor may need to contact an author’s or a reviewer’s relevant institutional, funding, or governmental authority (eg, an academic president, dean, or ethics/integrity officer) to request a formal investigation. In this situation, the editor will need to identify the person about whom the allegation was made. All communications regarding such allegations should be indicated as confidential. During such investigations, editors should avoid posting details, even if rendered anonymous, in email lists or blogs when seeking advice from colleagues. For more details on how an editor should handle such an allegation, ...