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Commonly Used Symbols.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.021.0007
Item type: 
section
Use mathematical symbols in running text only if they are presented with a numerical value within parentheses. These symbols can be used in figures, tables, and boxes with no explanatory footnotes. Some commonly used symbols are as follows: The following symbols are usually reserved for specific values:...

Displayed vs Run-in.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.021.0002
Item type: 
section
Simple formulas may remain within the text of the manuscript if they can be set on the line (ie, run in; see 20.2, Stacked vs Unstacked Fractions or Formulas): The pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) was calculated as follows: PVRI  =  (MPAP  −  PCWP)/CI, where MPAP indicates mean pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; and CI, cardiac index....

Expressing Multiplication and Division.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.021.0006
Item type: 
section
The product of 2 or more terms, including units of measure, is conventionally indicated by a raised multiplication dot (⋅) (eg, 7 kg ⋅ m2) or by 2 or more characters closed up (eg, y = mx  +  b). However, in scientific notation the times sign (×) is used (eg, 3 × 10...

Fractional Exponents vs Radicals.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.022.0001
Item type: 
section
Use of radicals (eg, any expression that contains a radical symbol: √) may sometimes be avoided by substituting a fractional exponent: (a2−b2)1/2 instead of a2...

Logarithmic Expressions.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.022.0003
Item type: 
section
The term log is an abbreviation of logarithm. A system of logarithms may be based on any number, although logarithmic systems based on the numbers 10, 2, and the irrational number e are most common. The base should be subscripted and follow the word log...

Long Formulas.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.021.0005
Item type: 
section
Long formulas may be given in 2 or more lines by breaking them at operation signs outside brackets or parentheses and keeping the indention the same whenever possible (some formulas may be too long to permit indention). If lines begin with an operation sign, they should be lined up with the first character to the right of the operation sign in the line above....

Mathematical Composition  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
eISBN: 
9780197507827
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020
Item type: 
chapter
ISBN: 
9780190246556
The Mathematical Composition chapter of the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style addresses conventions used to display mathematical formulas and other expressions involving special ... More

Mathematical Composition.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.021.0001
Item type: 
section
Mathematical formulas and other expressions that involve special symbols, character positions, and relationships may present difficulties in clarity in print and online publications. Avoid ambiguity through proper use of parentheses and brackets and adhere to typographic conventions and capitalization rules in equations (see 8.5...

Negative Exponents.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.022.0002
Item type: 
section
A negative exponent denotes the reciprocal of the expression, as illustrated in these examples: x−n=1/xn, A−1=1/A,   B−2=1/B2; A(x+...

Punctuation.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0020.021.0009
Item type: 
section
Punctuation after a set-off equation is helpful and often clarifies the meaning. Display equations are often preceded by punctuation. In the linear quadratic equation model, the survival probability for cells receiving a j increment of radiation, D j , is as follows: S=ex...

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