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Abbreviations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0087
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Table 14.6-2 lists some common abbreviations from pulmonary function testing; they should always be expanded at first mention. Previous | Next

Apgar Score.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0078
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This score4 (pp594-595)- 7 is an assessment of a newborn’s physical well-being based on the 5 factors of heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color, each of which is rated 0, 1, or 2; the 5 ratings are then summed. The Apgar score is often reported as 2 numbers, from 0 to 10, separated by a virgule, reflecting assessment at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. In general medical journals, however, it is best to specify the intervals, especially because the Apgar score may be assessed at other intervals (eg, 10, 15, or 20 minutes)....

Bacteria: Additional Terminology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0082
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section
For general guidelines on biological nomenclature that apply to bacteria, see 14.14.1, Biological Nomenclature. Rules for bacterial nomenclature are found in the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. 8 Sources of bacterial names available on the web are the List of Prokaryotic Names With Standing in Nomenclature...

Bethesda System for Cervical Cytology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0006
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section
The Bethesda System for Reporting Cervical Cytology, dating to 1988, is a standardized, systematic means of reporting Papanicolaou test results.12 Resources are the published handbook (the “blue book”)12 and the website (https://bethesda.soc.wisc.edu).13 Expand the following abbreviations at first mention, and punctuate as shown (...

Biological Nomenclature.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0081
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Scientific names are short terms used in place of lengthy descriptions of species of animals, plants, and organisms. A scientific name is typically derived from Latin and corresponds to a set of formally defined attributes. The meanings of scientific names are internationally understood.1 In contrast, ...

Birth Weight.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0079
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Birth weight is defined as the weight of a neonate immediately after delivery. It should be expressed to the nearest gram.4 (p3), 5 (p499) Low birth weight: weight less than 2500 g Very low birth weight: weight less than 1500 g Extremely low birth weight: weight less than 1000 g...

Blood Groups.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0001
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Blood groups in humans are characterized by erythrocyte (red blood cell) antigens with common immunologic properties. Blood group systems are series of such antigens encoded by a single gene or by a cluster of 2 or 3 closely linked homologous genes.1 , 2 , 3 The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) recognizes 346 antigen specificities and 36 blood group systems....

Cancer Stage.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0004
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Cancer stages are expressed with the use of capital roman numerals, with higher numbers indicating increasing extent of disease: stage I stage II stage III stage IV The term “stage 0” usually indicates carcinoma in situ, with no spread of disease beyond the primary site....

Cardiology.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.021.0004
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Several areas of cardiology use simple letter terms and alphanumeric terms that do not need to be expanded at first mention. Previous | Next International standardization of electrocardiographic nomenclature dates back to the mid-20th century.1 , 2 , 3 , 4 The preferred abbreviation for electrocardiogram and electrocardiographic is ECG, not EKG. In the following examples of ECG terms, note the use of capitals, lowercase letters, subscripts, and hyphens....

CD Cell Markers.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0521
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CDs (clusters of differentiation) are a system for identifying cellular surface markers, a number of which define lymphocyte subsets (see 14.8.7, Nomenclature, Lymphocytes).7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 The system and its nomenclature were formalized in a 1982 international workshop. Originally, CD terms specified the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that clustered statistically in their reactivities to target cells. More recently, the CD terms apply to the cellular molecules themselves. The CDs, which now number nearly 400 (and may eventually number in the thousands...

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