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CD Cell Markers.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0521
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section
CDs (clusters of differentiation) are a system for identifying cellular surface markers, a number of which define lymphocyte subsets (see 14.8.7, Nomenclature, Lymphocytes).7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 The system and its nomenclature were formalized in a 1982 international workshop. Originally, CD terms specified the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that clustered statistically in their reactivities to target cells. More recently, the CD terms apply to the cellular molecules themselves. The CDs, which now number nearly 400 (and may eventually number in the thousands...

Chemokines.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0051
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section
Chemokines comprise a family of more than 40 low-molecular-weight cytokines (see 14.8.4, Cytokines) with important roles in the immune system and functions beyond it.1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 The name chemokine, a contraction of “chemotactic cytokine,” reflects the common property, by which they were originally identified, of promoting leukocyte chemotaxis....

Complement.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0053
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section
The term complement refers to a group of serum proteins activated sequentially and rapidly in a cascade that produces molecules providing resistance to pathogens.15 The system was named in 1899 for its complementarity with antibodies in destroying microbes.15 Current nomenclature derives largely from the 1968 World Health Organization Bulletin “Nomenclature of Complement,”...

Cytokines.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0054
Item type: 
section
Cytokines are proteins or glycoproteins produced after stimulation (such as activation of immune cells) that act at short distances in low concentrations to produce various effects, such as immune and inflammatory reactions, repair processes, and cell growth and differentiation.4 , 6 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22...

HLA/Major Histocompatibility Complex.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0055
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section
Antigens of what is known as the HLA system appear on virtually all nucleated cells of human tissues and on platelets. Just as red blood cell antigens determine blood type (see 14.1, Blood Groups, Platelet Antigens, and Granulocyte Antigens), HLA antigens determine tissue type....

Immunoglobulins.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0056
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section
Immunoglobulins are the Y-shaped glycoproteins on the surface of B cells (see 14.8.7.1, B Lymphocytes) that can be secreted as antibodies in response to an antigenic stimulus (any molecule or composition of molecules from pathogens: bacterium, virus, parasite, or from transplanted organ that are recognized by immunoglobulin). Secreted antibodies can bind specifically to their antigens and in some cases can neutralize pathogens. The immunoglobulins were first recognized by serum electrophoresis and, because they were localized to the electrophoretic gamma zone, were originally referred to as ...

Lymphocytes.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0057
Item type: 
section
Lymphocytes are the cells that carry out antigen-specific immune responses.47 , 48 , 49 The 2 main types are the T lymphocyte and the B lymphocyte, also called the T cell and the B cell. A hyphen does not appear in these terms, unless they are used adjectivally. The terms are not customarily expanded....

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