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Chemical Names.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0026
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The chemical name describes a drug in terms of its chemical structure.1 (pp15-16) Chemical names are provided in the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts (https://www.cas.org/) and can be listed in 1 of 2 ways; the first reflects the way in which Chemical Abstracts...

Code Designations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0027
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A code designation is a temporary designation assigned to a product by the institution or manufacturer and may be used to refer to a drug under development before a nonproprietary name has been assigned. Codes may be numeric, alphabetic, or alphanumeric; letters in alphanumeric codes designate the institution or manufacturer assigning the code designation of the drug and are followed by numbers to designate the chemical compound....

Combination Products.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0031
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For combination products (mixtures), the names of the active ingredients should be provided. The proprietary name of the combination may be given in parentheses if necessary to clarify the product to which the article refers. pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and triprolidine hydrochloride (Actifed) povidone and hydroxyethylcellulose (Adsorbotear)...

Drug Abbreviations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0034
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Some drugs have commonly used abbreviations, such as INH for isoniazid and TMP for trimethoprim. However, abbreviations may be used inconsistently, be confused with other terms, or be unfamiliar to some readers. Because of the potential for harm from erroneous interpretation of abbreviated drug names, abbreviations should not be used except in rare instances (eg, ...

The Drug Development and Approval Process.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0023
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This brief summary of the drug development process is provided to help define the origins of different names used to identify drugs. Drugs intended for clinical use undergo several phases of development before they can be considered for human use. Animal studies are performed initially to assess pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. While clinical studies are being conducted, animal studies may continue to assess effects on reproduction, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity....

Drug Preparation Names That Include a Percentage.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0032
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Some drug names, such as those used in topical preparations, include the percentage of active drug contained in the preparation. In these cases, the percentage should be listed after the drug name. The patient was treated with adapalene, 1%. Metronidazole lotion, 0.75%, was applied twice a day....

Drugs With Inactive Components.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0029
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Many drugs contain a pharmacologically inactive component (eg, a base, salt, or ester) that is not responsible for the drug's mechanism of action but lends stability or other properties to the drug. Drugs with both an active and inactive component generally require a 2-part name that provides the active and inactive portion of the drug. Inorganic salts and simple organic acids are named in the order cation-anion (eg, sodium chloride, magnesium citrate). For more complex organic compounds, the active component is named first (eg, oxacillin sodium)....

Drugs.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.021.0006
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Physicians and other health care professionals, patients, researchers, manufacturers, and the public may refer to drugs by several names, including the nonproprietary name (often referred to as the generic name) and at least 1 proprietary (brand) or trademark name selected by the manufacturer of the drug. Other drug identifiers include chemical names, trivial (unofficial) names, and code designations....

Herbal and Dietary Supplements.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0037
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Herbal and dietary supplements do not receive nonproprietary names, and they are not regulated as drugs in many countries, including the US (as mandated by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, passed in 199413). The US Congress has defined a dietary supplement as...

Multiple-Drug Regimens.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0033
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Regimens that include multiple drugs may be referred to by an abbreviation after the nonproprietary names of the drugs have been provided at first mention (see 14.4.12, Drug Abbreviations, and 13.11, Clinical, Technical, and Other Common Terms). Drug regimens used in oncology frequently are referred to by abbreviations of combinations of antineoplastic agents, but often the abbreviations are not derived from the nonproprietary names. For example, the letter ...

Nomenclature for Biological Products.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0035
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Several categories of drugs are identical to or derived from biological products. Some hormones given as drugs, for example, require special mention because the drug name differs from the name used for the endogenous substance. Other categories of biologicals are derived from specific guidelines developed by the USAN Council, outlined below....

Nonproprietary Names.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0024
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The nonproprietary name (eg, INN or USAN) identifies a specific pharmaceutical substance or active pharmaceutical ingredient. The nonproprietary name is in the public domain and can be used without restriction. It is sometimes referred to colloquially as the generic name.3 However, the terms generic...

Proprietary Names.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0025
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The manufacturer's name for a drug (or other product) is called a proprietary name or brand name.1 (p17) Proprietary names use initial capitals, with a few exceptions (eg, pHisoHex). In scientific publications, the trademark symbol (™) or the registered trademark symbol (®) is not recommended because capitalization indicates the proprietary nature of the name (...

Stereoisomers.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0030
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Some molecules may occur with identical atoms in the same sequence but with different spatial arrangements. These are referred to as stereoisomers. A stereoisomer that is nonsuperimposable on its mirror image is chiral, and an atom with 4 different substituents is a chiral center; the 2 mirror images are ...

Trivial Names.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0028
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Drugs occasionally become known by an unofficial trivial name, a term that does not give any indication as to the class of drug or chemical structure (eg, aspirin, caffeine, epinephrine). The trivial name should be used in biomedical publications only to reproduce the exact language used as part of a study (eg, in a questionnaire), for historical reasons, or rarely when readers may be unfamiliar with the nonproprietary name. When reproducing the exact language used in a study, the nonpropietary name should be provided in brackets after the term used in the study....

Vitamins and Related Compounds.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0036
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The familiar letter names of most vitamins generally refer to the substances as found in food and in vivo. With the exception of vitamins A, E, and B complex, the nonproprietary names for vitamins given therapeutically differ from their in vivo names. (To enhance clarity for readers, the equivalent vitamin name may also be provided.) Various types of carotenoids (alpha and beta carotene and beta cryptoxanthin) may be converted to vitamin A within the body, so the specific agent that is administered should be provided. ...

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