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Human Chromosomes.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0043
Item type: 
section
Chromosomes are structures in the cell nucleus that contain short and long arms, joined at the centromere. They are composed of chromatin (chromatin is made up of DNA, RNA, and proteins) that carries genetic information (definition after Nussbaum et al1 and Turnpenny and Ellard...

Human Gene Nomenclature.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0041
Item type: 
section
The International System for Human Gene Nomenclature (ISGN), a system for gene symbols, was inaugurated in 19791 , 2 and has been continually updated. The history of naming genes and proteins is littered with redundancy because investigators often make discoveries separately and choose a name without following any sort of naming convention. Hence, the literature, especially literature more than a decade old, can be confusing because the same gene may have multiple names. Standardization helps both research and clinical care. The Human Gene Mapping Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), which developed the ISGN, put forth a “one human genome–one gene language” principle:...

Nonhuman Genetic Terms.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0044
Item type: 
section
Comparative genome analysis has shown that eukaryote species share genes to a great extent.1 Therefore, similar or identical names designate the same gene across species whenever possible. Italicization of gene symbols is uniformly observed. Animal gene symbols resemble human gene symbols (see 14.6.2...

Nucleic Acids and Amino Acids.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0040
Item type: 
section
Standards for molecular nomenclature are set jointly by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).1 The recommendations in this section are based on conventions put forth by the IUBMB-IUPAC Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature and the Nomenclature Committee of the IUBMB....

Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0042
Item type: 
section
Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are 2 of the main types of genes that play a central role in cancer. “An important difference between oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes is that oncogenes result from the activation (turning on) of proto-oncogenes, but tumor suppressor genes cause cancer when they are ...

Pedigrees.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0014.022.0045
Item type: 
section
Pedigree format recommendations are established by the Pedigree Standardization Task Force (now called the Pedigree Standardization Work Group) of the National Society of Genetic Counselors1 , 2 (see 5.8.3, Rights in Published Reports of Genetic Studies). The 2008 update recommends including on the pedigree the reason for referral (eg, abnormal findings on ultrasonography, family history of cancer)....

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