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Abbreviations.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0013
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Most units of measure are abbreviated when used with numerals or in a virgule construction. Certain units of measure should be spelled out at first mention, with the abbreviated form in parentheses. Thereafter, the abbreviated form should be used in text (see 14.12, Units of Measure)....

Base Units.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0002
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The SI is based on 7 fundamental units (base units) that refer to 7 basic quantities of measurement (Table 17.1-1). These units form the structure from which other measurement quantities are composed. Although not included among the 7 base units, the liter is widely used in the SI as a fundamental measure of capacity or volume. The liter is the recommended unit for measurement of volume for liquids and gases, whereas the cubic meter is the SI unit of volume for solids. Although the kelvin is the SI unit for thermodynamic temperature, Celsius is used with the SI for temperature measurement in biomedical settings....

Capitalization.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0006
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The SI unit names are written lowercase (eg, kilogram) when spelled out, except for Celsius (as in “degrees Celsius”), which is capitalized. Abbreviations or symbols for SI units also are written lowercase, with the following exceptions: ■ Abbreviations derived from a proper name should be capitalized (eg, N for newton, K for kelvin, A for ampere), although nonabbreviated SI unit names derived from a proper name are not capitalized (eg, newtons, amperes)....

Conventional Units and SI Units in JAMA Network Journals.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.021.0006
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In the United States, most physicians and other health care professionals use conventional units for most commonly encountered clinical measurements (eg, blood pressure), and most clinical laboratories report many laboratory values by means of conventional units. To serve these readers, but also to serve the needs of readers more familiar with the SI system, the JAMA Network journals have adopted an approach for reporting units of measure that includes a combination of SI units and conventional units....

Currency.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0034
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Amounts of money are expressed as a decimal number or whole number preceded by the symbol for the unit of measure for the currency. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested a $7000 difference between the 2 treatment strategies. Table 17.5-5 lists some international currencies and their symbols. Online currency converter programs are also available....
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Decimal Format.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0018
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The decimal format is recommended for numbers used with units of measure. Fractions should not be used with SI units. Mixed fractions occasionally are used in text to indicate less precise measurements and most commonly involve units of measure that represent time. After more than 7½ years of investigation, the effort to develop a new vaccine was abandoned....

Derived Units.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0003
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Other SI measurement quantities are referred to as derived units and are expressed as products or quotients of the 7 base units. Certain derived SI units have special names and symbols and may be used in algebraic relationships to express other derived units (Table ...

Drug Doses.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0031
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Drug doses are expressed in conventional metric mass units (eg, milligrams or milligrams per kilogram) rather than in molar SI units. Moreover, certain drugs (such as insulin or heparin) may be prepared as mixtures and have no specific molecular weight, thereby precluding their expression in mass units. Although other drug dose units, such as drops (for ophthalmologic preparations), grains (for aspirin), and various apothecary system measurements (eg, teaspoonfuls, ounces, and drams), may be encountered clinically, these units generally are not used....

Energy.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0030
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The calorie is the unit of measure often used in chemistry and biochemistry for reporting heat energy. A value of 1 calorie is the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 g of pure water by 1 °C. The joule is the preferred SI unit for energy, and calories and kilocalories may be converted to joules (J) and kilojoules (kJ) by using the following formulas:...

Exponents.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0009
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The SI reporting style uses exponents rather than certain abbreviations, such as cu and sq. Previous | Next The same symbol is used for single and multiple quantities. Unit symbols are not expressed in the plural form....
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Expressing Quantities.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0017
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Arabic numerals are used for quantities with units of measure (see 18.1, Use of Numerals). By SI convention, it is preferable to use only numbers between 0.1 and 1000 and to use the appropriate prefix for expressing quantities. For example, 0.003 mL is expressed as 3 ...

Expressing Unit Names and Symbols.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.021.0003
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The SI includes conventions for expressing unit names and abbreviations (often referred to as symbols) and for displaying them in text. Previous | Next The SI unit names are written lowercase (eg, kilogram) when spelled out, except for Celsius (as in “degrees Celsius”), which is capitalized. Abbreviations or symbols for SI units also are written lowercase, with the following exceptions:...

Format, Style, and Punctuation.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.021.0004
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The format, style, and punctuation guidelines generally apply for SI reporting but also are used for reporting most values in conventional units. Previous | Next The SI reporting style uses exponents rather than certain abbreviations, such as cu and sq. Previous | Next

Hyphens.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0015
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A hyphen is used to join 2 spelled-out units of measure. pascal-second person-years pack-years Note: Capitalization for the above examples follows the style for temporary hyphenated compounds (see 10.2.2, Hyphenated Compounds) and appears as “Person-Years” in a title. A hyphen is used to join a unit of measure and the number associated with it when the combination is used as an adjective (...
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Indexes.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0021
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An index generally refers to a quantity derived from a ratio of 2 (or more) measurable quantities and often is used to compare individuals with each other or with normal values. Except for products or quotients that represent specific derived SI units of measure (...

Laboratory Values.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0032
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In JAMA Network journals, laboratory values for clinical chemistry analyses, hematologic tests, immunologic assays, metabolic and endocrine tests, therapeutic drug monitoring, toxicology determinations, and urinalysis are reported by means of conventional laboratory units. Table 17.5-2 provides examples of conventional units and SI units and is intended to facilitate conversion from conventional units to SI units (and vice versa). A conversion calculator is freely available online at ...

Length, Area, Volume, Mass.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0023
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Measurements of length, area, volume, and mass are reported by means of metric units rather than English units (Table 17.5-1). In less formal, nonscientific texts, such as essays, use of nonmetric units, such as miles or inches, and the use of idioms, such as “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” or “give an inch,” are acceptable. In addition, if the nonmetric ...
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Multiplication of Numbers.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0020
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Multiplication of numbers should be indicated by the multiplication sign (×) and may be used to express area (eg, a 15 × 35-cm2 burn), volume (eg, a 5.2 × 3.7 × 6.9-m3 cube), matrixes (eg, a 2 × 2 table), magnification (×30 000), or scientific notation (eg, 3.6 × 10...
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Number Spacing.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0019
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By SI convention, the decimal point is the only punctuation mark permitted in numerals, and it is used to separate the integer and decimal parts of the number. The SI does not use commas in numbers in particular because the comma is used in some countries as the decimal sign. Integers (whole numbers) with more than 4 digits are separated into groups of 3 (using a thin space, a space character that is usually 1⁄5 or 1⁄6 the width of an em dash; to insert a thin space using Unicode in Microsoft Word, type the code 2009 where the thin space should appear, set the cursor after “9,” and press Alt + X on the keyboard) with respect to the decimal point. Four-digit integers are closed up (without a space). Decimal digits also are grouped in sets of 3 digits beginning at the decimal sign, with the same closed-up spacing for 4-digit groups (...

pH.  

Lauren Fischer and Paul Frank

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0017.022.0028
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Although SI nomenclature could be used to express values of hydrogen ion concentration (nmol/L), the pH scale (1-14) is used. Previous | Next A molar solution contains 1 mol (1 g molecular weight) of solute in 1 L of solution. The SI style for reporting molar solutions is mol/L; for solutions with millimolar concentrations, mmol/L is used; and for solutions with micromolar concentrations, ...

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