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Abbreviating Number.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.021.0007
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The word number may be abbreviated No. in the body of tables and line art or in the text when used as a specific designator. Do not use the number sign (#) in place of the abbreviation; this could be confused with the hashtag (#) used in social media. The word ...

Accepted Usage.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0011
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Spell out numbers for generally accepted usage, such as idiomatic expressions. One frequently appears in running text without referring to a quantity per se and may appear awkward if expressed as a numeral. When one may be replaced by a or a single without changing the meaning, the word ...

Beginning a Sentence, Title, Subtitle, or Heading.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0009
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Use words for any number that begins a sentence, title, subtitle, or heading. However, it may be better to reword the sentence so that it does not begin with a number. Numerals may be used in sentences that begin with a specific year, but avoid beginning sentences with years if possible....

Combining Numerals and Words.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.021.0004
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Use a combination of numerals and words to express rounded large numbers and consecutive numerical expressions. Previous | Next Rounded large numbers, such as those starting with million, should be expressed with numerals and words. The disease affects 5 million to 6 million people. (Note that the word ...

Common Fractions.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0003
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Common fractions are written with a numerator and denominator in which both are integers (eg, 1/3, 1/2, 7/8). Where spelled out, simple common (where the numerator and denominator are nonzero integers, eg, 9/10) and nonsimple (when the numerator or denominator contain fractions) fractions are expressed with hyphenated words, whether the fraction is used as an adjective or a noun. Mixed fractions are typically expressed in numerals (...

Consecutive Numerical Expressions.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0015
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When 2 numbers appear consecutively in a sentence, either reword the sentence or spell out 1 of the numbers for clarity. Study participants were provided twenty 5-mL syringes. When I first started out as an author, one had to send an envelope with 3 copies of a manuscript and one 3.5-in diskette to submit a manuscript for publication....

Decimals.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0016
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The decimal form should be used when a fraction is given with an abbreviated unit of measure (eg, 0.5 g, 2.7 mm) to reflect the precision of the measurement (eg, 38.0 kg should not be rounded to 38 kg if the scale was accurate to tenths of a kilogram) (...

Enumerations.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.021.0006
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Indicate a short series of enumerated items by numerals run in and enclosed within parentheses in the text (see 8.5, Parentheses and Brackets). The testing format focused on 6 aspects: (1) alertness and concentration, (2) language, (3) naming, (4) calculations, (5) construction, and (6) memory....

Measures of Currency.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0007
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For sums of money, use the appropriate symbol to indicate the type of currency (eg, $, €, £, ¥; see 17.5.12, Currency).1 His charge for the medication was $55.60 plus $0.95 for shipping. The equivalent sum in euros was €30. Previous | Next

Measures of Temperature.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0006
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Use the degree symbol with Celsius and Fahrenheit measures of temperature but not for Kelvin.1 A space should appear between the number and the degree symbol (see 17.3.8, Spacing). Changes in temperature are expressed as higher and lower and not warmer or colder (...

Measures of Time.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0005
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Measures of time usually are expressed as arabic numerals (see 13.3, Days of the Week, Months, Eras). When dates are provided, numerals should be used for day and year; the month should be spelled out unless listed in a table. Conventional form for time and dates (11:30 ...

Mixed Fractions.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0004
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Mixed fractions are the combination of a whole number and a fraction into a single, mixed number. They may be used for less precise measurements instead of decimals. These expressions usually involve time. Common fractions are typically spelled out (see 18.1.2, Common Fractions). The surgery lasted 3¼ hours....

Numbers and Percentages  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
eISBN: 
9780197507827
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018
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chapter
ISBN: 
9780190246556
The Numbers and Percentages chapter of the 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style tackles the difficult question of when to use numerals and when to use words, and how to combine the two. ... More

Numbers and Percentages.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.021.0001
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section
Any policy on the use of numbers in text must take into account the reader’s impression that numbers written as numerals (symbols) appear to emphasize quantity more strongly than numbers spelled out as words. Because numerals convey quantity more efficiently than spelled-out numbers, they are generally preferable in technical writing. In literary writing, by contrast, spelled-out numbers may be more compatible with style. Despite these general principles, usage may appear inconsistent when a publication chooses to use numerals in some instances and words in others. The guidelines outlined in this section attempt to reduce these inconsistencies and avoid use of numerals that may be jarring to the reader. In situations that are not governed by these guidelines, common sense and editorial judgment should prevail....

Numbers of 4 or More Digits to Either Side of the Decimal Point.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0002
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Commas are not used in large numbers. In 4-digit numbers, the digits are set closed up. For numbers of 10  000 or greater, a thin space is used to separate every 3 digits starting from the right-most integer (or, in numbers with decimals, from the left of the decimal point). For numbers with 5 or more digits to the right of the decimal point, a thin space is used between every 3 digits starting from the right of the decimal point (...

One Used as a Pronoun.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0010
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The word one should be spelled out when used as a pronoun or noun. The investigators compared a new laboratory method with the standard one. These differences may be concealed if one looks only at the total group. William James uses the idea of the one and the many as the great challenge of the philosophical mind....

Ordinals.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0012
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Ordinal numbers generally express order or rank rather than a precise quantity. Because they usually address nontechnical aspects of the objects they modify, ordinals are often found in literary writing. The numerical expression of commonly used ordinals (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc) may appear jarring and interrupt the flow of the text. For this reason, the ordinals ...

Percentages.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0017
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section
The term percent derives from the Latin per centum, meaning by the hundred or in, to, or for every hundred. The term percent and the symbol % should be used with specific numbers. Percentage is a more general term for any number or amount that can be stated as a percent. ...

Reporting Proportions and Percentages.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0018
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Whenever possible, proportions and percentages should be accompanied by the actual numerator (n) and denominator (d) from which they were derived. In text, the numerator and denominator should be expressed as “n of d” not by the virgule construction “...

Reporting Rates and Ratios.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

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Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0018.022.0019
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Use the virgule construction for rates when placed in parentheses (eg, 1/2) but never in running text. A colon is used for ratios (eg, 1:2). Rates should use the decimal format when the denominator is understood to be 100; otherwise, the denominator should be specified....

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