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Cross-sectional Studies.  

Edward H. Livingston

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th edn)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0019.022.0016
Item type: 
section
Cross-sectional studies observe individuals at a single point or during a specific interval, in which exposure and outcome are ascertained simultaneously. Such studies may be helpful for suggesting associations among variables but cannot address whether one condition may precede or follow another. Thus, cross-sectional studies cannot establish ...

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