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Apologetic Quotation Marks.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0360
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Quotation marks are sometimes used around words for special effect or to indicate irony. In most instances, however, they are unnecessary and should be avoided in scientific writing. Avoid: Funding for “big data” projects is increasing. Previous | Next A word or phrase following ...

Avoidance of Ellipses in Tables.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0382
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section
In tables, to avoid ambiguity, ellipses should not be used to indicate that no data were available or that a specific category of data is not applicable. Indicators such as NA (not available) or NR (not reported) should be used instead. Blank cells in a table also should be avoided unless the column heading does not apply to the entry or unless the entire section of the table does not contain data (...

Block Quotations.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0366
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section
Editorial judgment must be exercised to determine whether material quoted from texts or speeches is long enough to warrant setting it off in a block, ie, indented and without the quotation marks. Different modes of display (eg, print, online, optimized for mobile) should be considered when thinking about length. Paragraph indents are generally not used unless the quoted material is known to begin a paragraph. Space is often added both above and below quoted material that is indented. Block quotations are often preceded by a colon....

Brackets.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0351
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section
Brackets are used to indicate editorial interpolation within a quotation and to enclose corrections, explanations, or comments in material that is quoted (see 8.6.1, Quotations; 8.8.6, Ellipses, Change in Capitalization; and 8.8.7, Ellipses, Omission of Ellipses). “The following year [1947] was a turning point.”...

Change in Capitalization.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0380
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section
The first word after the end punctuation mark and the ellipses should use the original capitalization, particularly in legal and scholarly documents. This facilitates finding the material in the original source and avoids any change of meaning. If a change in the original capitalization is made, brackets should be used around the letter in question (...

Coined Words, Slang, or Unfamiliar Terms.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0359
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section
Coined words, slang, unfamiliar terms, nicknames, and words or phrases used ironically or facetiously may be enclosed in quotation marks at first mention. Thereafter, omit quotation marks (see 21.9, Editing, Proofreading, Tagging, and Display). Diagnoses based on traditional Chinese medicine, such as “yin deficiency,” may not jeopardize patients who have received a medical diagnosis before entering the study....

Colon.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0338
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The colon is the strongest of the 3 marks used to indicate a decided pause or break in thought. It separates 2 main clauses in which the second clause amplifies or explains the first. This dictum is often believed to be in the Hippocratic Oath: First, do no harm....
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Comma, Semicolon, Colon.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.021.0140
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section
Commas, semicolons, and colons can be used to indicate a break or pause in thought, to set off material, or to introduce a new but connected thought. Each of these punctuation marks has specific uses, and the strength of the break in thought determines which mark is appropriate....
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Comma.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0336
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section
Commas are the least forceful of the 3 marks. Although comma usage sometimes is subjective, there are definite rules for using commas. Follow these rules unless overriding considerations (such as clarity) require otherwise. The comma is used to separate phrases, clauses, and groups of words and to clarify the grammatical structure and the intended meaning....

Common Words Used in a Technical Sense.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0362
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Enclose in quotation marks common words used in a special technical sense when the context does not make the meaning clear (see 8.6.11, Definition or Translation of Non–English-Language Words). In many publications, “running feet” on left-hand pages face the “gutter” at the bottom of the page....
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Dashes.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0341
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section
Dashes, another form of internal punctuation, convey a particular meaning or emphasize and clarify a certain section of material within a sentence. Compared with parentheses, dashes may convey a less formal or more emphatic “aside.” There are 4 types of dashes, which differ in length: the ...

Definition or Translation of Non–English-Language Words.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
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Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0363
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section
The literal translation of a non–English-language word or phrase is usually enclosed in quotation marks if it follows the word or phrase, whereas the simple definition of the word or phrase is not (see 12.2, Accent Marks [Diacritics]). Patients with hysteria may exhibit an attitude termed ...

Dialogue.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0354
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With conversational dialogue, enclose the opening word and the final word in quotation marks. “Please don’t schedule the surgery for a Tuesday.” “OK, if that’s inconvenient for you, I won’t.” If a quotation is interrupted by attribution, punctuate as follows: “If there is no alternative,” she said, “we can schedule the surgery for Tuesday.”...
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Ellipses.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.021.0146
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Ellipses are 3 spaced dots (. . .) generally used to indicate omission of 1 or more words, lines, paragraphs, or data from quoted material (this omission being the ellipsis). Excerpts from the following paragraph will be used to demonstrate the use of ellipses. Vilhelm Hammershøi (1864-1916) was a Danish artist best known for his somber, haunting interior scenes. A master of understatement, his best works are small interiors, often devoid of people. When human beings do appear, they often have their backs turned to the viewer and are apparently self-absorbed. Hammershøi’s art transformed his apartment into a continuum of unsettling empty spaces where time seems suspended; his works are not still life paintings but are intended to convey a mood, often a melancholy stillness. He does so by limiting his palette to umber, sienna, brown, black, and white and by excluding warmer tones. Hammershøi’s works are not naturalistic but, instead, reflect a mental climate without vitality and seem to speak to the loneliness and isolation of the individual....

Exclamation Point.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0334
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Exclamation points indicate emotion, an outcry, or a forceful comment. Avoid their use except in direct quotations and in rare and special circumstances. They are not appropriate in scientific manuscripts and are more common in less formal articles, such as blog posts and informal essays, where added emphasis may be appropriate. If they are used, do not repeat the punctuation mark for emphasis....
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Forward Slash (Virgule, Solidus).  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.021.0142
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section
The forward slash is used to represent per, and, or or and to divide material (eg, numerator and denominator in fractions; month, day, and year in dates [only in tables and figures]; lines of poetry). It may also be used in URLs (see 2.0...

Grammatically Incomplete Expressions.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0377
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The sentence within which an ellipsis occurs should be a grammatically complete expression. However, ellipses with no period may be used at the end of a sentence fragment to indicate that it is purposely grammatically incomplete. Complete the sentence “When I retire, I plan to . . . ” in 20 words or less....
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Hyphen.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0340
Item type: 
section
UPDATE: In chapter 8.3.1.2, Hyphen, Clarity, the term “re-sent” was added to the first box to distinguish it from the word “resent.” In the second box, the terms co-infected and co-infection were removed to reflect their entry in Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary following the usual approach to close up words that begin with the prefix co-. These changes were made ...
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Hyphens and Dashes.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.021.0141
Item type: 
section
Hyphens and dashes are internal punctuation marks used for linkage and clarity of expression. Previous | Next UPDATE: In chapter 8.3.1.2, Hyphen, Clarity, the term “re-sent” was added to the first box to distinguish it from the word “resent.” In the second box, the terms co-infected and co-infection were removed to reflect their entry in Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary following the usual approach to close up words that begin with the prefix co-. These changes were made ...

In Dates.  

Cheryl Iverson

in AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors (11th ed.)

Print Publication Year: 
Feb 2020
Published Online: 
Feb 2020
DOI: 
10.1093/jama/9780190246556.003.0008.022.0345
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section
Use the forward slash in dates only in tables and figures to save space (month/day/year) (see 4.1.6, Tables, Punctuation). Avoid this presentation of dates in the text. Previous | Next In equations that are set on the line and run into the text rather than centered and set off (...

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